英文目录和摘要（Contents and Abstracts） 2019/07/05
(Issue 4, 2018)
New Developments and Features in Theoretical Research on Chorography
—Speech at the 2018 Seminar on Theories of Chorography and Local History
Grasping Key Points in Discipline Building of Chorography
—Theory Development, System Construction, and Approach & Principles
Abstract: Since the first round of local chronicles compilation was launched by the PRC, the chorography community has been actively engaged in the discipline building of chorography. Considerable results have been seen in the status and nature of chorography, the shaping of its system as a discipline (including basic theories, applied theories and the development history of chorography), and the relationships between chorography and other disciplines. Particularly, many ideas have been floated regarding its system construction. These research fruits are a direct result of the flourishing of chorography as a discipline, and mirror a divergence of views regarding the discipline building of chorography within the community. Therefore, establishing a discipline system of chorography recognized by the entire community is a task of priority in the chorography circle.
Key words: chorography, discipline system, key points of discipline building
A Study on the History of Compilation and Revision of Township and Village Chronicles since the Founding of the PRC
Shen Songping and Yang Dan
[Abstract] Following the founding of the People’s Republic of China, township and village chronicles have witnessed slow growth for a long time as they didn’t fall within the annals and chronicles required to be compiled by national authorities. However, local chronicles proliferated rapidly in some economically developed provinces. With the unveiling of the Outline of the Development Plan for National Chorography Cause (2015–2020) by the State Council General Office and the awakening of grassroots culture, chronicle compilation has been expanding to local communities, townships and villages, and the compilation of township and village chronicles is ushering in a boom. However, to do a good job in compiling township and village chronicles, several principles should be strictly followed, including not copying the stylistic guides of municipal and county chronicles, focusing on microscopic chronicling, detailing what are missing from municipal and county chronicles, documenting history from the perspective of the ordinary people and highlighting local characteristics.
[Key words] PRC, township and village chronicles, compilation and revision of history
On the Research and Compilation of Urban History
Abstract: The research and compilation of urban history, as a rigorous academic exercise, poses considerable challenges which mainly lie in the demanding academic goal of “being horizontally all inclusive and vertically continuous” and the defects in historical literature itself. Researchers of urban history need to widely collect extant literature, made textual research on them, and resort to cultural relics and archaeological materials as supplementary and corroborating evidence, in order to identify the patterns and regional characteristics of urban development in history. The compilation of urban history should undertake the mission of “documenting an epoch truthfully”, and bear in mind the differences and associations between urban history and municipal chronicles. History is a mirror to both the present and the future.
Key words: urban history, regional studies, compilation, municipal chronicles
An Inquiry into the Interaction between Local Chronicles and Local Culture in Yunnan during the Reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty
[Abstract] Yunnan experienced several changes of regime in early Qing Dynasty. The ruling class needed to take actions to restore order as soon as possible. Particularly, chorography, as part of its cultural policy, was given top priority by local officials. This paper, based on the local chronicles of Yunnan during the reign of Emperor Kangxi and in light of the compilation, printing and circulation of local chronicles, conducts both horizontal and vertical comparisons to analyze the features of the local chronicles during this period, then probes into the interplay between local culture and that of the Central Plains, and finally reviews the implications brought by the compilation and revision of local chronicles and annals during this period.
[Key words] Emperor Kangxi, Yunnan, local chronicles, cultural interaction
A Preliminary Study on the Compilation and Innovation of Local Annals in Ba and Shu Regions during Late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China Period
Abstract: Local annals represent a type of historical book of late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China period. They are different from those compiled by townships, provinces, prefectures, and counties and have a special place in the Chinese chorography history. As teaching materials on local historical and geographical knowledge compiled primarily for primary schools during late Qing and the Republic of China period, local annals were mainly intended to invoke patriotism and love for hometown in students, and advocate starting up businesses, developing industries, running schools, improving folk customs, and popularizing science. With distinct era-specific and regional characteristics, these annals blazed the trail for local education in modern China. Most of the local annals of provinces, sub-prefectures, counties, villages, and townships compiled in Ba and Shu regions have been preserved in the form of manuscripts or hand-copied books. These invaluable records not only serve as an important source of literature for reference, but also show a lot of innovations in the styling, thinking approach and content of compilation, among other aspects.
Key words: Ba and Shu regions, local annals, innovation, compilation, late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China period
Formation and Evolution of Almanac in Modern China under Combined Influences of China and foreign countries (1846-1949)
Abstract: Almanacs in modern China can be traced back to the municipal yearbooks and customs almanacs compiled and printed by western people in China in mid-19th century. By the early 20th century, with the introduction of Japanese almanacs and related compilation and printing expertise, China began to publish almanacs in English, Japanese and Chinese drawing upon the experience of almanac making in English and Japanese. The ever-deepening study and understanding of almanac gave rise to a variety of almanac types based on Chinese literature sources, and Chinese almanac in a real disciplinary sense gradually took shape. In the process of aligning with the basic standards of almanac making in western countries, the fundamental principles including the extensive coverage of literature, the expertise in literature research and almanac compilation and the value as governance reference were widely practiced. The formation and evolution of almanac in modern China was a process of convergence of Chinese and Western knowledge and adaptation to China’s national reality. The almanac compilation in China saw the shaping of its own characteristics while following the universal principles of the discipline.
Key words: almanac, China and foreign countries, modern China, formation, evolution
Construction of Norms of Almanac Compilation and Paradigm of Almanac Discipline
Abstract: As a discipline evolves to a certain degree, research on its disciplinary paradigm will inevitably be the next step. As China’s almanac making cause gradually falls into place, the paradigm of almanac discipline will naturally be put on agenda. The paradigm of Chinese almanac discipline refers to the basic approach followed by the Chinese almanac workers on considering, studying and constructing the issues of almanac as a discipline since almanac found its way into China. Such a paradigm represents an academic tradition and an academic image. It is a necessary condition for a discipline to become an independent subject and also a signal of its maturity. This paper, from three aspects, i.e., the norms of almanac and paradigm of almanac discipline, developments of almanac discipline paradigm in China, and restrictions on constructing such a paradigm, makes preliminary exploration into the construction and significance of this paradigm, the relationship between almanac compilation norms and almanac discipline paradigm, the development trajectory of almanac discipline in China and its connections with the shaping of its paradigm, as well as the constraints on constructing this paradigm. However, the almanac community still has a long way to go in constructing the paradigm of almanac discipline based on research on almanac norms over time, theoretically explaining various almanac phenomena, revealing the laws of development underlying these phenomena, reaching consensus on fundamental issues of almanac and building unified basic theories of almanac discipline, thus establishing an independent discipline system of almanac discipline. The entire community needs to make concerted efforts to continue its quest.
Key words: almanac discipline, compilation, norms, paradigm, discipline system
Engaging in the Past: Three Perspectives in the Writing of Yunnan History
—Citing Dian Records, Unofficial History of NanzhaoKingdom and the Origin of the Kingdom of Bai as Examples
Abstract: With the Dian Records, Unofficial History of Nanzhao and The Origin of the Kingdom of Bai as examples, this paper explores the writing, compilation and spread of the history of Nanzhao Kingdom and Dali Kingdom by different peoples living in southwestern China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. This paper argues that the production of historical knowledge involves the interactions of multiple parties including native peoples: From translation and writing by local scholars, to collection and compilation by exiled men of letters, and on to funding and publishing by officials, the tales, history and literature about Nanzhao Kingdom and Dali Kingdom found a wider audience through people of different regions and identities. Meanwhile, these literature works constitute a field for different groups of people to initiate dialogues and discussions on the past: scholars from outside used “records” to incorporate the history of Nanzhao Kingdom and Dali Kingdom in the ideological domain of the Central Kingdom; local elite included the stories of their ancestors in local chronicles to express their dual identities; and local monks put down oral stories on paper so that they could reach a wider audience. In this process, the “insider views” and “outsider perspectives” of different groups of people converged as they exchanged ideas and related to each other through the writing of history.
Key words: writing of history, knowledge production, Nanzhao Kingdom, Dali Kingdom, Yunnan history
An Inquiry into the Model of Local Gentry's Engagement in Public Welfare Undertakings in Jiangnan during Late Qing Dynasty and Early Republic of China
—From the Perspective of Central-Local Relationship
[Abstract] China was traditionally an agricultural country where decentralized small-scale agricultural economy and a large unified nation as a whole coexisted throughout history. This is largely due to the existence of gentry who, as a “balancer” between the central and the local, actively engaged themselves in public good causes, playing an indispensable role. This paper focuses on the model in which the gentry group in Jiangnan region (south of the Yangtze River) engaged in and contributed their part to public good undertakings in late Qing and early Republic of China when China was in the process of “national modernization”. The gentry’s engagement in social good causes was always accompanied with the influences, support and incentives from the government. The gentry’s public welfare engagement during this period is a great source of inspiration for the current rural revitalization efforts.
[Key words] late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China, Jiangnan gentry, public welfare, the central and the local
Traces of Emperor Jianwen among Place Names and Folk Customs in Gansu Province
[Abstract] The whereabouts of Emperor Jianwen of the Ming Dynasty has remained a mystery and it has become the subject of heated discussion by historians in recent years. As early as 1994, Xu Huamin and Lian Shucheng co-authored a local chronicle named The Origin of Wei River. In this book, the authors wrote an article entitled the Elusive Traces of a Deposed Emperor which argued that Emperor Jianwen went as far as Qutan Monastery in Ledu, Qinghai. Yang Miaolin and Yang Wei, in A Study on the Possible Death of Emperor Jianwen at Qutan Monastery, Ledu, Qinghai, and Gong Weizhang, in the New Inquiry into the Exile of Emperor Jianwen of the Ming Dynasty to Qutan Monastery, Qinghai, both floated the idea that the deposed emperor ended up in Gansu and finally died in Qutan Monastery, Ledu, Qinghai. This paper supplements new literature on the tales of Goddess Jinhua (or Madame Jinhua) and her temples and steles, place names (e.g. Dangjia Stone, Luojia Stand, Jiujia Trench, Jiejia Mouth, Fulong Ground and Canglong Cave, with “jia” and “long” literally all related to emperor or dragon). A map has also been drawn, marking the traces of the emperor across China. Taking the approach of “coexistence” rather than “one or none” to various theories, this paper explores the traces of Emperor Jianwen in the wake of the Jingnan Incident and argues that Emperor Zhu Yunwen finally settled in Gansu and Qinghai after flitting from one place to another would be a reasonable and reliable conclusion.
[Key words] Emperor Jianwen of the Ming Dynasty, place names, folk customs, Gansu, traces
Summary of the 2018 Seminar on Theories of Chorography and Local History
Zhang Li and Yang Yang