Hongkou District is situated by the northeast of downtown Shanghai, bordering on Yangpu District on the east, Zhabei District on the west, Pudong New Area and Huangpu District across the Huangpu River and Wusong Creek (Suzhou Creek) to the south, and Baoshan District on the north. At the end of 1993, the district had an area of 23.45 square kilometers, extending some 7.8 kilometers northsouth and about 3.8 kilometers eastwest, and a registered population of 837,822, with 13 subdistricts (town) under it. The seat of the District People’s Government is at 10 Hainan Road.
Hongkou is named after Hongkougang Creek (formerly known as Shahong, with its juncture with the Huangpu River known as Hongkou). Before the opening of Shanghai as a trading port, Hongkou area consisted mainly of farmland and fishing villages, with the exception of the towns of Jiangwan, Hong and Hongkou. The Qiujiang old river marked the boundary of the district, south of which was Shanghai County and north of which Baoshan County. In the 25th year of the reign of Daoguang (1845), Qing Dynasty, American missionaries rented a piece of land in the south of the area and built houses there. In the 28th year of Daoguang, a settlement of American nationals was established. In the fifth month of the 2nd year of Tongzhi (June 1863), four American settlements were designated. In the eighth month of the same year, the British and American settlements were combined to be known as the joint BritishAmerican Settlement. In the third month of the 25th year of Guangxu (1899), it was renamed Shanghai International Settlement. The southern part of the district constituted the main part of the northern and eastern areas of the International Settlement. The part of the district north of the International Settlement remained under the jurisdiction of Shanghai and Baoshan Counties respectively. After the August 13 Incident of 1937, Hongkou, occupied by the Japanese navy, was under its direct rule. Upon the victory of the War Against Japanese Aggression (19371945), the said concession was returned to China and districts were established by the Shanghai Municipal Government, with main parts of the present district designated as the 16th, 17th and 18th districts. In the 36th year of the Republic (1947), they were renamed respectively Hongkou District, North Sichuan Road District and Tilanqiao District. After the liberation of Shanghai, the Municipal Military Administrative Commission sent officers to take over the three district administrative offices and established district people’s governments. In March 1956, North Sichuan Road District and Hongkou District were merged to become part of Hongkou District. In December 1959, Tilanqiao District was merged with Hongkou District to become part of Hongkou District. In September 1984, Jiangwan Town and Dabasi (now known as Dabaishu) area of Baoshan County were incorporated into Hongkou District as it is known today.
Located where land and water meet, Hongkou District is convenient in transportation.
The district was once beaches on the East China Sea, crisscrossed with creeks and rivers. Historically, there used to be 50 creeks and rivers of different lengths and at present only 15 of them remain, notably the Huangpu River, Wusong Creek and the Hongkougang river system composed mainly of Hongkougang, Shajinggang and Yujingpu. Xiahaipu (gotosea river), which used to be the lower reach of the Wusong Creek and the access to the sea for boat people and fishermen, is no longer in existence. But the GotoSea Temple built during Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty to house the Sea God for ensuring peace and safety remains today, attracting a large number of worshippers. After the opening of Shanghai as a trading port, Chinese and foreign trading firms and shipping companies, taking advantage of the convenient water transportation, built docks along the river of which Huishan and Gonghexiang docks, 810 meters in water depth by the wharfs, could accommodate seagoing vessels with displacements of 10,000 tons. Later, the area along the Huangpu River developed into a major port for ocean and coastal passenger and cargo transportation in Shanghai. After liberation, thanks to a series of reorganizations of the public wharfs along the Huangpu River in the district and renovations of port facilities, their handling capacities steadily increased and the port area became one of the hubs of international and domestic passenger and cargo water transportation in Shanghai. By the end of 1993, the number of wharfs along the river capable of handling more than 10,000 tons had increased to 12. The Gongping Road Passenger Transportation Terminal, with shipping lines from Shanghai to Qingdao, Dalian, Wenzhou and Guangzhou, had become the largest coastal passenger transportation hub in China. The Outer Hongqiao International Passenger Transportation Terminal, with scheduled liners from Shanghai to Kobe, Osaka, and Yokohama of Japan, as well as to Hong Kong, is the only international passenger transportation terminal in Shanghai. Gaoyang Port Service Company has maintained cargo transportation ties with more than 150 countries and regions in the world and is one of the major foreign trade general cargo handling enterprises in Shanghai Port. Huishan Handling Company is specialized in handling and transshipping cargoes ranging from articles of daily use to pig iron, minerals and construction materials. The routes it serves extend to China’s northern and southern coasts and the Changjiang River. The Shanghai Ocean Shipping Company, located in the district and with oceangoing vessels sailing to 265 ports in 82 countries and regions of the world, is the largest subsidiary of China Ocean Shipping Company. East Daming Road along the harbor has gradually become a shipping thoroughfare specialized in international and domestic water transportation and shipping services.
Thanks to the development and boom of the port area, land transportation within the district also expanded. Around the turn of the century, Hongkou had become one of the areas in the city where rickshaw companies and private motor transportation companies were concentrated. At the beginning of the 20th century, main artery roads, such as Broadway Road (now called Daming Road), Seward Road (the presentday Changzhi Road), Wusong Road and North Sichuan Road (the presentday Sichuan Road(N)), were already in place. Tram cars, buses and ferry boats were in service and many taxi operators established. On the eve of liberation, there were more than 150 private motor transport companies in the district, accounting for more than onethird of the city’s total. After liberation, as a result of reorganization, merging and expansion in the transport sector, Shanghai No.5 Motor Transport Depot (presentday Hudong Motor Transport Company) and No.7 Motor Transport Depot (presentday Shanghai Chemicals Transport Company) were successively established. By the 1980s Hudong Motor Transport Company became the largest comprehensive materials transport company in Shanghai with a twostoreyed parking lot for cargo transport vehicles, the first of its kind in China. Shanghai Chemicals Transport Company was the largest highway transport company for chemicals in China. Meanwhile, the People’s Government rebuilt and widened Sichuan Road(N), Wusong Road, Siping Road, Dalian Road(W) and other main roads, constructed Wusong Road floodgate bridge and the section of the Inner Ring viaduct in the district, so that they become the artery roads linking the downtown area with Yangpu industrial zone and Baoshan industrial base. By 1993, there were as many as 50 trolleybus and bus routes in the district. In that year, the 11 routes around Lu Xun Park and the 7 routes in Tilanqiao area carried an average daily total of 1,352,600 and 1,118,500 passenger times respectively, being the busiest parts in the district in terms of passenger traffic.
Hongkou District is distinguished for its booming trade and commerce, with modern industry developed quite early.
After Shanghai was opened as a trading port, its busy dock activities brought about a flourishing market and as a result, trade and commerce developed gradually around Tilanqiao and Wusong Road.
In the 1860s, with the opening by Ye Chengzhong of Shun’s Foreign Sundries Store on Broadway Road, small and mediumsized hardware stores grew very rapidly nearby. By the eve of the War Against Japanese Aggression, the number of such stores reached 124. The commodities dealt in ranged from ship hardware, machinery parts, steel materials, textile hardware, construction hardware, water pipes and valves to hardware tools, and they were sold to customers from all over the country. Fruit storehouses were opened along Fude Road by tradesmen from Guangdong, thus making the road known far and wide as the road of Guangdong fruits. At the end of the 19th century, the triangular area near W.J.Boone Road (now Tanggu Road) and Hanbury Road (now Hanyang Road) had become a wellknown vegetable market and wholesale center for beef and mutton in Shanghai. At the beginning of the 20th century, the authorities in the concession constructed a road across the border by extending North Sichuan Road to Jingjiashe (now the site of Lu Xun Park), making it a northsouth artery road. Taking advantage of its geographic location close to the Shanghai Railway Station, the then land gateway to Shanghai, the commercial center of Hongkou soon shifted from Broadway Road and Wusong Road to North Sichuan Road. Shops opened there one after another dealing in textiles, shoes and hats, clocks and watches, Chinese and western garments, confectionery and snacks, dry delicacies from north and south China, fruits, and foodstuff and beverages. As a result, North Sichuan Road became one of the main shopping streets in the city’s downtown area. When Shanghai fell not long after the outbreak of the War Against Japanese Aggression in the 27th year of the Republic (1938), many shops in the district either moved out or closed, so that market was slack and Japaneseowned stores sprang up. In the 31st year of the Republic, there were 326 Japanese companies and shops on North Sichuan Road and 117 on Wusong Road. After China’s victory over Japan, there was a brief resurgence of business and North Sichuan Road resumed its position as one of the three shopping streets in Shanghai, the other two being Nanjing Road and Avenue Joffre (now Huaihai Road(C)). Tilanqiao and East Changzhi Road became the commercial center in east Shanghai, while Wusong Road was known as the road of western suits. The area along Qiujiang Road and its branch road developed into a market for secondhand hardware and articles of daily use well known in the city. In early 1949, there were more than 7,100 shops of various kinds in the district.
After the liberation of Shanghai, the People’s Government supported private businesses by allowing them to engage in proxy sales, distribution and wholesale and providing them with bank loans so as to lead them gradually on to the track to state capitalism. At the same time, the government organized small tradesmen and hawkers into cooperatives. In 1951, there were 12,849 private retail shops in the district. After the completion of socialist transformation in 1956, there were here 10,541 joint stateprivateowned shops, 165 cooperative stores and 379 cooperative groups. After 1958, as a result of the influence of “leftist” ideology, commercial establishments were reduced, goods flow channels merged, business outlets scaled down, and country fairs cancelled. By 1965, the number of commercial outlets in the district was reduced to 2,420. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the commercial market was devastated, the specialties of many sectors were lost and the quality of service declined. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CPC, thanks to the implementation of the reform and open policy, the planned purchase and sale system was restructured, the autonomy of the enterprises expanded, the flow channel rationalized and business operations persified. Furthermore, various forms of the contractual responsibility system were introduced, large enterprise groups were organized and small enterprises invigorated. As a result, the commerce in the district registered rapid expansion and the market became ever brisker. In 1993, there were 6,831 districtadministered commercial enterprises in the district.
After readjustment, the shopping street of Sichuan Road(N) developed into three sections characterized by persity, specialization and elegance respectively. By combining mediumlevel stores with deluxe shops, focussing on specialities and meeting the needs of the salaried class, they earned small profits but realized a large turnover. All these, coupled with constantly improving service quality, had won the trust of the customers. As a result, the 401 shops along the road accomplished 3 billion RMB yuan in turnover and 80 million RMB yuan in profits in 1993. The commercial roads at Tilanquao and East Changzhi Road, after readjustment and renovation, and through introduction of new facilities and the construction and expansion of a group of shops, became a commercial center combining specialization with comprehensiveness. Zhapu Road was now lined with 108 restaurants of various types and was reputed as the miniature deluxe gourmets’ road in Shanghai. At the end of 1990, a market for means of production was established at Dabaishu, thus giving an impetus to the rapid development of domestic and foreign trade around the area, and gradually the Dabaishu commercial center took shape. In the district, there were now nine stargraded hotels, including Lansheng Hotel, Shanghai Mansion, New Asia Hotel, Ocean Hotel, and 57 wellknown specialized shops, including Shanghai No. 7 Department Store and Hong Kong Hairdresser’s. Dechang western garments, Vienna leather shoes, Jinlun laundry and dyeing, Guangmaoxiang roast duck, Haochilai roasted seeds and nuts, Yidinghao and Yedachang food and (north) Leiyunshang’s Liu Shen Wan were all wellknown special quality products by timehonored shops. In 1993, a total of 7.31 billion RMB yuan in sales were accomplished in the district, of which 4.9 billion RMB yuan were accomplished by commercial enterprises in the district’s finance and trade sector, with 102 million yuan in profits. The rapid synchronized growth both in sales and profits placed Hongkou in the front rank of all districts in the city. Between 1994 and 1996, commerce continued to develop rapidly, with commercial sales in the whole district totaling 11 billion, 12.72 billion and 13.65 billion RMB yuan respectively, ranking second among the downtown districts of the city.
As one of the earliest areas in Shanghai in the development of modern industry, Hongkou is known for its comparatively large concentration of small and mediumsized industrial establishments. In the 1850s, American and British businessmen opened J.Dewsnap Dockyard and Hongkew, Bubirt and Yesong shipyards along the river in Hongkou. In early 1860s, American businessmen built Qiji Shipyard on the southern bank of Hongkougang, thus making Hongkou as well as Pudong two shipbuilding and repairing centers in Shanghai. In Tongzhi Year 4 (1865), the Qing court opened on both sides of Hongkougang, where the river emptied itself into the Huangpu River, the largest armament factory in China, known as Jiangnan Machine Building Works, which moved to Gaochangmiao Town, Nanshi, in Tongzhi Year 8 (1869). The next year, a Cantonese businessman established Fachang Machinery Works, the first of its kind built with national capital in Shanghai, on East Broadway Road (now East Daming Road). From then on, modern industry continued to develop in the district, financed by foreign capital, national capital or the Chinese government. After the First World War, the industry in the district, especially machinery industry, witnessed fast growth. In the 1920s and 1930s, Tiantong’an, Hengbang Bridge, Tiyuhui Road (W) and both sides of the boundary of the Settlement east of Hongkougang were dotted with factories of more than ten sectors, ranging from machinery, silk spinning, printing and dyeing, textiles, metal products to electrical apparatus. In the 23rd year of the Republic (1934), the number of factories increased to 1,081, accounting for about 25% of the total number of factories in the city, of which 384 were in the machinery sector, accounting for 32.2% of the factory total in the district. In addition to a few factories of fairly large sizes, such as Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company Shanghai Branch, Wahson Electrical Apparatus Works, Americanrun Haining Trade Company (now Yimin No.1 Food Factory) and Japaneserun Shanghai Crucible Cooperative Company (presentday Shanghai No.2 Refractory Materials Works), there were as many as 384 factories with less than 10 persons each. During the War Against Japanese Aggression, factories in the district suffered heavy losses.
After the victory of the War, there was a short period of industrial revival. Factories such as China Standard Pencil Factory and Sine Pharmaceutical Works moved into the district one after another. In 1950, there were more than 1,900 factories in the district. After 1956, many factories under various industrial bureaus of the city were put under the leadership of the district, and Tilanqiao area once became one of the six industrial zones in the city. As a result of the reorganization of municipalityrun industry, districtowned industry began to develop. In 1963, there were 491 factories in the district, employing 86,000 persons and turning out 1.39 billion RMB yuan in value annually, with machinery giving way to mechanoelectrical, textile, garment and metal products as the leading sectors. In April 1964, industrial enterprises originally under the dual leadership of the municipality and the district were placed under the overall leadership and administration of the municipal industrial bureaus. After 1978, industrial enterprises went through a series of restructuring and reorganization processes, focussing on the expansion of operational autonomy and introduction of contractual operational responsibility system. In 1984, there were 711 factories in the district, of which 677 were smallsized, accounting for 95.2%, with an annual output value of 4.95 billion RMB yuan and total profits of 1.33 billion RMB yuan. In 1993, there were 662 industrial enterprises in the district employing 159,900 staffers and workers. Of these enterprises, 346 were districtrun and 316 were nondistrictrun, With respect to proportions, 41.4% were in mechanoelectrical, chemical, instrument and meter sectors, 35.34% in light industry, textile and handicrafts and 23.26% in other sectors, with an annual output value of 13.802 billion RMB yuan and total profits of 1.558 billion RMB yuan.
The people in Hongkou had a glorious tradition in waging revolutionary struggles and opposing foreign aggression.
As Hongkou in former days covered the northern and eastern parts of the International Settlement, where Chinese and foreign intermingled, it was at once the center of white terror and a relatively “safe” area due to multijurisdiction, the latter creating favorable conditions for revolutionaries to secure a foothold and carry out secret struggles. In the 20th year of Guangxu, Qing dynasty (1894), Dr Sun Yatsen stopped over at Shanghai and became friends with Song Jiashu (styled Yaoru). So Song’s home at Zhujiamuqiao, Dongyouheng Road (presentday 530534 East Yuhang Road) became one of the contact points for the revolutionaries to secretly plan the first Guangzhou uprising. In the 32nd year of Guangxu, a group of returned students from Japan established at the north end of Hengbang Bridge the China Public School, which became a contact point for Tongmenghui. The next year, China Women’s Paper, with Qiu Jin as the editorinchief, started publication at Houdeli, North Sichuan Road.
When the Communist Party of China (CPC) was first established, Chen Duxiu, Chen Wangdao, Sheng Yanbing and Yu Xiusong disseminated Marxism and engaged in labor movement in the district. In June of the 13th year of the Republic (1924), under the leadership of the wellknown communist Xiang Jingyu, the workers from Yuncheng and Wuhua Silk Works at Hujiamuqiao went on strike, demanding increased wages and shortened work hours. The strike soon spread to 14 silk works and 14,000 persons were involved. Chen Duxiu wrote an article lauding this strike as “a major event in the labor movement not only in Shanghai, but also in the whole country.” In the spring of the 14th year of the Republic, the Fourth National Congress of the CPC was held in the district. The secretariat, communications pision, propaganda department, workers and peasants department of the CPC’s Central Committee, CPC Shanghai District Committee and other Party organs moved into the district one after another, where Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun, Luo Yinong, Chen Yannian, Zhao Shiyan, Qu Qiubai and other leaders led revolutionary struggles. In the 14th year of the Republic, after the occurrence of the May 30th Massacre, workers, students and shopkeepers in whole Hongkou went on strike. When a Japanese ship docked at N.Y.K. Wharf, no one was on hand to unload her, though the Japanese owner offered high payments. In March of the 16th year of the Republic, workers in Shanghai staged the Third Armed Uprising. It was from Hongkou District that the Special Committee of the Central Committee of the CPC, the supreme decisionmaking organ of the uprising, directed the contact points and the Shanghai General Federation of Trade Unions issued orders for the uprising. The pickets in Hongkou took the lead in rising up in arms and captured four police stations at one go, thus providing powerful support for the citywide armed uprising. In the period of the Second Revolutionary Civil War, Hongkou was the front post in the struggle against “encirclement and annihilation campaign” in the cultural field in Shanghai and, in fact, in the whole country. In April 1927, Chiang Kaishek launched a counterrevolutionary coup. CPC members, among them Pan Hannian, Yang Hansheng, Li Yimang, Zhu Jingwo, Peng Kang, Hong Lingfei and Meng Chao, who evacuated from various places, congregated in Hongkou and united with Guo Moruo, Zheng Boqi and other progressives in the cutlural circles to establish a cultural united front and launched a leftwing cultural campaign by opening bookstores, organizing associations and starting journals along North Sichuan Road in a legitimate struggle against the Kuomintang’s banning, outlawing and persecution of leftwing culture. Later on, they further combined the Creation Society, the Sun Society and other progressive organizations into the Chinese LeftWing Writers’ Union, with Lu Xun as the chief commander. Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun, cooperating closely and fighting shoulder to shoulder, led large numbers of leftwing cultural activists in continuing their struggle against Kuomintang hack writers, thus making outstanding contributions to the said struggleagainst the “encirclement and annihilation” in the cultural field.
In the 1930s, when the Japanese military provoked the two fierce battles in Shanghai area that started separately on January 28, 1932 and August 13, 1937, they used the headquarters of Japanese special marine corps stationed in the district as their base in their attack on Chinese territory. After the fall of Shanghai, the Japanese consulate, army and navy, gendarmerie, special service and Asia Development Institute maintained their headquarters or branch offices in the district. The Japanese aggressor troops and ronins burnt, killed, looted and raped in Hongkou, stopping at nothing, thus inflicting tremendous losses on the lives and properties of the people. In face of Japanese atrocities, the army and people in the district rose in selfdefense. The wellknown battle for Bazi Bridge, the fierce battle at N.Y.K. Wharf and the commando raid on the headquarters of the Japanese special marine corps struck terror into the hearts of the Japanese invaders and are glorious pages in the annals of the battles against Japanese invasion in Shanghai area. The people of Hongkou also actively organized antiJapanese volunteers and firstaid teams, participated in antiJapanese and national salvation activities, including antiJapanese demonstrations, supporting antiJapanese bases and boycotting the takeover by Japanese aggressors and their puppets, thus dealing heavy blows to the Japanese aggressors.
During the war of liberation, CPC underground organizations in the district led workers and students in holding strikes, demonstrations, support rallies and petitions to oppose hunger, the civil war and persecution. Students from universities and middle schools, such as Jinan, Guanghua, Mailun and Fuxing, gave tit for tat to the KMT armed police who committed atrocities in suppressing the student movement. In the spring of 1949, CPC underground members and the broad masses in various circles in the district coordinated their struggles from within with the PLA forces attacking on the outside by guarding factories, schools, and warehouses to greet the liberation of the city.
Hongkou District is also distinguished for its education, science and technology, culture, health service and sports.
Education in Hongkou is complete in range and scope. Historically, most schools were established by celebrities. In the 7th year of Guangxu, Qing Dynasty (1881), the American Missionary Young John Allen opened the SinoOccident College in the district. In the 16th year of Guangxu, Nanyang Public School (the forerunner of the presentday Jiaotong University) established a translation school in Hongkou, with Zhang Yuanji appointed as its president. In the first year of the Republic (1912), ShenzhouUniversity, established by Tang Wenzhi, Yan Fu et al moved from Nanshi to Jiangwan. In the 1920s and 1930s, CPC and KMT members jointly established Shanghai University in the district. Cai Yuanpei and Li Shizeng established the National Labor University. Chen Wangdao and others established the Chinese University of Arts. He Shizhen established Chizhi University. In addition, there were medical colleges, universities of industry and engineering, railway college, normal universities, fine arts college and sports college, as well as schools of law, business, medicine, liberal arts and theology, established by Chinese nationals. By 1937, there were more than 40 universities and colleges in the district.
In the 25th year of Guangxu, Ye Chengzhong donated money for the establishment of Chengzhong Enlightenment School, which was the earliest modern school established in the district by a Chinese national. Missionary schools, such as St. Francis Xavier’s College (presentday Beihong Middle School), Elizayates Girls’ High School (presentday Beijiao Middle School) and Medhurst College (presentday Jiguang Middle School) were either established or moved into the district in the Guangxu period. During the two battles in Shanghai in the 1930s, many schools were destroyed by Japanese gunfire and most of the other schools were either forced to close down or move. After the victory of the War Against Japanese Aggression, some schools were restored. On the eve of liberation, there were in the district 7 institutions of higher learning, 29 middle schools, 8 vocational schools, 20 municipal primary schools and 108 private primary schools, 32 kindergartens, and 38 oldstyle private schools. After liberation, public and foreignsubsidized missionary schools, taken over one after another by the People’s Government, implemented the policy of opening their doors to workers and peasants so as to meet the needs of their children for schooling. In 1952, as a result of the reorganization of colleges and departments in the institutions of higher learning throughout the country, three institutions of higher learning remained in the district. In the 1960s, 24 new middle schools and 11 primary schools were established in the district. After 1980, the structure, level and scale of education and location of schools in the district were readjusted and vocational and technical education was developed. In 1985, the law and regulations on compulsory education began to be implemented. By the end of 1993, there were within the district 4 fulltime institutions of higher learning, 3 adult colleges, 5 sports schools, 45 middle schools, 5 vocational schools, 85 primary schools, 76 kindergartens, one adult secondary specialized school, one adult secondary technical school, one school for deafmutes and one reform school. Fuxing Middle School, No.1 Affiliated Middle School of the East China Normal University, Shanghai Foreign Languages School and Hongkou District No.3 Central Primary School are wellknown schools at the municipality level that have considerable influence throughout the country as well as in the city. Beijiao, Hongkou, Beihong, Jiguang and Chengzhong are key secondary schools at the district level that enjoy a high reputation in the whole city. All these schools are distinguished for their long histories, solid foundations, highly qualified teaching staffs, advanced facilities and high standard of education.
The development of science and technology in Hongkou is closely linked with production and application. In 1924, Wahson Electrical Apparatus Works successfully developed the Wahson Brand electrical fans. After the victory of the War Against Japanese Aggression, Sine Pharmaceutical Factory developed Vitaspermin and Sulfathiazole, then known as the “kings of medicine”. After liberation, scientific research groups were organized and technical innovations and technical revolutions carried out on a wide scale in factories, schools and hospitals. Around 1960, the successful development of new products, such as the blackandwhite films of Shanghai Photosensitive Film Factory, the high pressure seamless steel cylinders of Shanghai AcidResistant Enamel Works and the reactive dye of trichlorocyanogen type of China No.3 Dyes Works, filled gaps in their respective fields for the state. Since the 1980s, major steps have been taken to promote the progress in science and technology for economic development of Hongkou, including the establishment of the district scientific and technical consultancy service center, development of private scientific and technological enterprises, setting up of foundations for scientific and technical development, implementation of the Spark and Torch programs, introduction of a reward system in the scientific and technological circles and the forming of the Group of ScienceTechnology Experts. By 1993, there were 4,841 professional scientists and technicians in the engineering and medical fields working in districtrun units, of whom 123 had senior professional titles. In the district are now located 6 research institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences or ministries, 10 municipalityadministered research institutes, 4 districtadministered research institutes, 29 districtadministered professional societies and associations and 501 private scientific and technological enterprises. In all, 49 statelevel awards and 400 municipal and ministerial awards for scientific and technological achievements have been won by research institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, ministries and Shanghai Municipality located in the district. Two awards of the National Science Conference and 10 municipal and ministerial awards for scientific and technological achievements have been won by districtadministered enterprises and institutions.
Historically, early culture in Hongkou was at once nationalistic, foreign and revolutionary in character. The settlement by Cantonese in the district brought about a boom in Canton opera. After the 11th year of Tongzhi (1872), Qing Dynasty, two performing centers in Shanghai, namely, Guang Theater and Guangdong Theater (presentday Qunzhong Theater), were established. Shaoxing opera and Huai opera also had numerous fans in Hongkou, who were so enthusiastic as to write the plays and perform themselves. Between the 1860s and 1880s, Tongwen Press and Tongwen Book Society were successively established to photocopy Chinese classics, introduce Western culture and publish Bulletins on the World. In the 8th year of Guangxu, the Cheliney Circus from America performed in Outer Hongkou Square, which was packed to capacity, and the show ran on for over a month. In the 34th year of Guangxu, the Spanish merchant Leimasi opened the first formal cinema in ChinaHongkou Moving Picture House. By the end of the 1940s, 47 film companies and 32 cinemas had been established at different times in the district, making Hongkou the cradle of Chinese film and projection industry. In the first year of the Republic (1912), Wu Shiguang, Liu Haisu et al established the first painting and fine arts institute in Shanghai on Zhapu Road, thus opening a new chapter in the annals of Chinese fine arts. In 1916, Yu Jifan and Pan Tianshou established in the district the Hsinhua Arts Institute (later renamed Xinhua Arts College), where such outstanding talents as Wu Qingxia and Huang Zhen were trained. In 1929, a Japanese friend, Kanza Uchiyama, opened the Uchiyama Bookstore, where leftwing progressive books were sold and many Chinese and foreigners in the cultural circles gathered, and which became one of the major venues for cultural exchange between China and foreign countries. In the same year, at 11 Darroh Road (today’s Duolun Road), the first theatrical group under the leadership of the CPC-Shanghai Artistic Theatrical Society-was established, which was the first to put forward the slogan “theater for the proletariat”. Meanwhile, the Liberal Arts University was established, with Tian Han, Hong Sheng and Zhang Daqian invited as professors. In 1930, the Union of Chinese Leftwing Writers was founded at Chinese Arts University and the leftwing cultural movement, with Lu Xun as the standardbearer, was launched, thus opening a new chapter in the history of contemporary Chinese literature. In the 1930s, when the Japanese invaded Shanghai on two occasions, cultural facilities in the district were seriously damaged. After the victory over Japan, progressive cultural activities revived and, to train progressive artists, Shanghai Theatrical College (later renamed Shanghai Experimental Theatrical School) was first established at the north end of Hengbang Bridge, where the present Experimental Middle School of the District Education College is now located, with Gu Zhongyi and Xiong Foxi successively as the principals.
After liberation, cultural undertakings kept developing, with a cinema, a library, a cultural center, a children’s palace, two clubs, a projection team, three professional theatrical troupes and one trouperun theatrical school newly built. Shanghai Lu Xun Memorial Hall was established in 1951 and, in the past forty years and more, it has received a total of more than 9 million Chinese and foreign visitors. In 1956, the tomb of Lu Xun was moved to Hongkou Park (renamed Lu Xun Park in 1988) and, honored with the inscription“鲁迅先生之墓”(Tomb of Mr.Lu Xun) by Mao Zedong, is one of the key protected historical and cultural sites at the national level. In the district, there are now 10 protected historical and cultural sites and memorial places at Municipal level, including the site of the Fourth National Congress of the CPC and the former residence of Qu Qiubai, all of which have become bases for education in patriotism. After the implementation of the reform and open policy, 8 cultural establishments were newly built, including Quyang Cultural Center, Quyang Library, Memorial Hall of the site of the Leftwing Writers’ Union and Hongkou Calligraphy and Painting Academy, and ten cinemas and theaters rebuilt. By 1993, there were 30 public cultural establishments, 280 entertainment places, 300odd dealers in books, newspapers, audio and visual materials, and more than 20 sparetime art schools in the district. Ten cultural units, including Quyang Cultural Center, have been more than once awarded the title of Advanced Collective at Mumicipal or state level, and Hongkou District is appraised as a statelevel model district in cultural development.
Health care in Hongkou district is characterized by its integration of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and Jiangwan Town has always been known as the home of traditional Chinese medicine. The famous Qing doctors Li Jilong and Zhu Menglin used to practice medicine in the district. In the 5th year of Tongzhi, American Episcopal Church established Tongren Hospital. In the 3rd year of Guangxu, the General Hospital moved into the district. In the period of Guangxu, a rich Cantonese established Guangzhao Hospital, the first hospital established in the district by the Chinese themselves. The isolation hospital for foreigners established in Guangxu Year 30 (1904) and the Chinese Public Hospital set up by the Chinese in Xuantong Year 2 (1910) were the earliest hospitals for infectious diseases in Shanghai. On the eve of the victory over Japan, there were more than 80 Japaneserun hospitals in the district. By 1949, there were more than 210 public and private hospitals and 10 charity institutions in the district, most of which closed down or stopped operation before liberation because of their small scale and poor equipment. In the early postliberation period, there were 23 medical institutions in the district.
After liberation, the People’s Government built and expanded disease preventive and health care institutions at various levels. In 1956, private hospitals went public and private practitioners and the united health centers in factories and enterprises formed united clinics and, later on, community hospitals based on neighborhood affiliations. From late 1950s to early 1960s, different departments of western medicine became more specialized and doctors in these departments were encouraged to learn from traditional Chinese medicine. After 1978, the integration of western and Chinese medicines developed its own unique features and breakthroughs were made at the District Central Hospital (in 1994 renamed Shanghai Hospital for Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicines) in treating vascular diseases, acute amyasthenia and chorionitis by combining traditional Chinese and western medicines. Accordingly, Shanghai “medical coordination centers” for treating these three diseases by combining Chinese and western medicines were successively formed. Meanwhile, disease prevention and health care continued to make headway in the district. In 1990, with endorsement by the World Health Organization (WHO), Hongkou established the first urban primary health care development cooperative center in the world. In 1993, within the district, there were 15 health institutions administered respectively by the municipality, enterprises or army units, 27 health institutions administered by the district and 18 medical institutions of various types. There were 2,075 beds in the districtadministered hospitals.
The development of sports in Hongkou can be traced back to a very early date. As early as the days when concessions were first opened in Hongkou and Christian missionaries began to establish schools in the district, modern sports were already introduced. In Guangxu Year 26 (1900), the YMCA built a sports ground at Range Road (presentday Wujin Road) where sports meets were held every year. In Guangxu Year 31 (1905), the authorities in the settlement opened up the Hongkou Recreation Ground (later renamed Hongkou Park) on the shooting range at Jinjiashe, covering an area of 210,000 square meters, where golf, tennis, hockey, football and basketball matches as well as track and field events could be held. It was a fairly wellequipped large sports ground in Shanghai at the time. In the 4th and 10th years of the Republic (1915 and 1921), the 2nd and 5th Far East Games were held here, thus contributing to the extention of sports activities from schools to society at large and to the shifting of their emphasis from military drills to field and track events and ball games. In 1912, the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC) of the International Settlement built an SMC Swimming Pool northwest of the sports ground. In 1924, the Jingwu Sports Association (formerly Jingwu Gymnastics Association established by the martial art master Huo Yuanjia) moved into the district and grew very rapidly, with its branches spread to all southern provinces and even to southeastern Asian countries. In 1931, the Liangjiang Women’s Sports Specialized School, established by Lu Lihua, a Chinese national, moved into the district and all together, 22 classes were trained in the school that turned out about 1,000 graduates, who were assigned to various parts of the nation and even to southeastern Asian countries as teachers. The school was destroyed in the war when Japanese troops invaded Shanghai.
After liberation, sports undertakings kept growing in Hongkou, and by 1993, there were 11 stadiums and gymnasiums in the district. The Hongkou Stadium, built in 1951, has been expanded twice and can now hold more than 30,000 spectators. It is one of the central grounds for many important sports events in Shanghai. The opening ceremony of the First East Asian Games in 1993 was held here. The District SpareTime Sports School for Teenagers, established in 1958, and having sent 1,259 athletes to national, city and armed forces (above the army level) sports teams between 1960 and 1993, is in the top rank of schools of the same type in the city. Among those outstanding athletes are Cao Yanhua, women’s singles champion of the 37th and 38th World Table Tennis Championships, Shi Meiqin, ping champion of the Second World Cup and Ye Chong, men’s foil champion in the 1989 World Youth Fencing Championships. Mass sports activities have been carried out on a wide scale in the district and between 1988 and 1992, Hongkou District was successively appraised as Home of Swimming and Home of Martial Arts at the national level.
Hongkou District is a comprehensive residential area.
From the 1860s to the 1930s, there sprung up large numbers of now oldstyle residential houses built within lanes, with a small number of westernstyle buildings dotted among them. In the 1930s, many new style terraces and lanes, apartment buildings and villas with gardens were built in the Settlement area and along North Sichuan Road, Scott Road (now Shanyin Road) and Dixwell Road (now Liyang Road) and these fine residences in the district, being quiet and secluded in a busy district and lower in rents than those in the city center, attracted large numbers of dwellers of the uppermiddle strata, including foreign nationals, industrialists and businessmen, intellectuals, and military and civil officers. These residential buildings were severely damaged during the Japanese invasion, however. After the fall of Shanghai, many such buildings were occupied by Japanese troops or civilians and converted into Japanesestyle houses. At the same time, the Japanese also built many dwellings of their native styles. After the victory over Japan, the population in the district increased rapidly and there was a severe housing shortage, resulting in the appearance of large numbers of shanties. At the time of Shanghai’s liberation in 1949, there were a total of 1.08 million square meters of newstyle terraces and lane houses, apartment buildings and garden villas in the district, accounting for 23% of all the residential housing; 3.12 million square meters of oldstyle houses dominated by houses with stone facade doors and Cantonesestyle lane houses, accounting for 66%; and 500,000 square meters of shanties, accounting for 11%.
After liberation, the government gave priority to the improvement of the housing conditions of the laboring people by renovating dangerous houses, slums and shanties and by building new residential areas. Between 1953 and 1983, 15 new residential quarters were constructed in the district, including Guangzhong, Dalian, Yutian, Jianshe and Youdian, with a total building area of 695,000 square meters. In the 1980s, a variety of channels were explored for housing development in the district, including planned construction by the state, construction financed by relevant units, construction through collective funding, utilization of differential land rents, development of commodity housing and the renovation of the old living quarters in conjunction with municipal road projects and key project construction. Jiugen Lane on Haining Road, Xingfucun on Dalian Road(W)/Siping Road and Tangshan Alley on Tangshan Road were successively pulled down and rebuilt so that the integrated development in the area along Siping Road began to take shape. By the end of 1993, after the pulling down of the old residential areas, 2.33 million square meters of new housing were built in the district. The low, dark, damp and crowded shanty towns of the old days had given way to new residential areas with rows upon rows of multistoreyed and highrise apartment houses, so that the district has taken on a new look. Between 1984 and 1993, four new residential quarters were developed in the district, namely Quyan, Yunguang, Fengzhen and Liangcheng, with a building area of 2,203,900 square meters and 715,000 square meters in other housing projects, a total 2,918,900 square meters in building area have been completed in the district, 4.2 times the total building area of residential housing built in the previous 30 years. Since liberation, a total of 3,613,900 square meters of residential housing have been built in the new residential areas in the district, with per capita residential space increased from 5.3 square meters in 1986 to 6.5 square meters in 1993.
Around the 1930s, highrises began to be built in residential housing development in Shanghai. At the time, there were four buildings with more than eight storeys in the district, covering a total area of 74,700 square meters. Among those, the Embankment Building, with a total building area of 54,200 square meters, was the largest residential building in the city. Between 1980 and 1993, 118 buildings with more than eight storeys were built in the district, 28.5 times the number before liberation. In 1993, there were a total of 157 highrises in the district, covering a total area of 1,878,000 square meters, ranking second among all the districts of the city.
In step with housing development, the number of roads in the district had been increased to 240 by 1993, with a total length of 163.25 km. There were 68 bridges with a total length of 2,185 meters, 169 km. of drainage pipes, 19 pump stations for rainfalls and 11 transformer substations with a total load of 890,500 KVA. Almost every part of the district had tap water and electricity supply. 69.38% of the households in the district were already using town gas. There were 6 parks and 2,143,000 square meters of green land in the district with an greenpatch rate of 14.04%. By 1985, the district had become an essentially smokefree zone. In 1991, the district became a zone where low noises from fixed sources were controlled, thus greatly improving the appearance and environment quality of the district.
Hongkou used to be a residential area for Japanese and Jewish people. After the southern part of the district was incorporated into the International Settlement in the 1860s, foreign nationals, notably British, Americans, Portuguese, Russians and Indians, moved in. After the SinoJapanese War of 18941895, Japan got privileges in China under the Treaty of Shimonoseki. As a result, more and more Japanese arrived in Shanghai. Between the 1880s and 1890s, the Japanese Consulate and Dongbenyuan Temple were established and moved into the district. The Japanese nationals settled around the two places, most of whom relatively concentrated along Broadway Road, Wuchang Road, Kunshan Road and Minhang Road. By the end of the 19th century, there were already nearly a thousand Japanese nationals in the district. During the First World War, European powers were too preoccupied to pay much attention to affairs in the East. Consequently, Japanese capital rushed in and an influx of Japanese nationals followed. The areaalong North Sichuan Road, Darroh Road, Scott Road and Dixwell Road that ran across the borders of the districts became another Japanese settlement. In mid1920s, there were already nearly ten thousand Japanese residents in Hongkou. In the 1930s, the number rose to more than twenty thousand. When the Pacific War broke out in December, 1941, Japanese troops occupied the whole International Settlement and part of the Japanese nationals in Hongkou were sent to the south of Suzhou Creek to take over “assets of hostile countries (Britain, the U.S. and Holland)”.
During the time when Shanghai was under Japanese occupation, there were nearly one hundred thousand Japanese nationals in the city in the peak period, of whom more than thirty thousand lived in the former International Settlement. Hongkou remained to be the area with the highest concentration of Japanese nationals in Shanghai. At that time, there evolved a large “Japanized” neighborhood, with Wusong Road and North Sichuan Road as the warp and the branch roads of the two main roads as the weft. On sale on the Sanjiaodi Food Market were fresh fish and vegetables from Nagasaki, and Japanesestyle fish shops, pickles shops, snack bars and cloth shops were everywhere to be seen,and the busiest part of Hongkou was referred to by the Japanese as “Little Tokyo”. After the Japanese surrender, the KMT government issued order that all Japanese nationals in Shanghai move within half a month to Hongkou, where a selfgoverned Japanese zone was established. At that time, there were 10,429 Japanese households and 79,755 Japanese nationals in the district. Starting from the 35th year of the Republic (1946), Japanese nationals were repatriated home in batches. The repatriation completed between June and July the same year. During the rule of the Japanese aggressors, some Japanese, however, remained friendly towards the Chinese and some of them even helped Chinese revolutionaries and progressives in carrying out their work and sheltered them. After liberation, especially after the implementation of the open and reform policy, many Japanese have come and visited the district.
In the 1930s. Nazi Germany carried out an antiJewish policy of expelling and eliminating the Jewish people. As a result, large numbers of European Jews were forced to leave their homes and seek refuge elsewhere. Shanghai at that time was the only city in the world where no entrance visa and property guarantee were needed and so central European Jews flocked to Shanghai to seek refuge. The refugee influx reached its height between 1938 and 1939, and, in a few years, an accumulated total of about 18,000 entered the city. Most of the Jews settled down around Tilanqiao, Hongkou, where refugee centers and camps, such as 138 Ward Road (now Lane 138, Changyang Road), Alcock Road (now Anguo Road), Chaofung Road (now Gaoyang Road) and Wayside Road (now Huoshan Road), were established. In December 1940, there were 20,000 registered Jewish refugees in the city, of whom 14,00015,000 lived in Hongkou. In 1943, the Japanese authorities established a quarantine zone in the district and forced Jewish refugees to move in within a time limit and introduced a rigid registration system. In the same year, the number of Jews living in Hongkou grew to 17,000. While a small number of them lived in the refugee centers, most of them lived with Chinese residents. They got along well with the locals and shared weal and woe with them. Chinese inhabitants vacated their rooms for the Jewish refugees and found jobs for them. By opening shops, operating businesses, building homes and engaging in technical services, the Jewish refugees also made their contributions to the development of Hongkou and, as a result, more than ten neighborhoods in Tilanqiao area enjoyed a short spell of prosperity. After the end of the Second World War, the Jewish refugees left Shanghai successively for other parts of the world. However, they would never forget their experience in Shanghai and often call themselves “Shanghai Jews”, regarding Shanghai as their “second home”. Since the implementation of the reform and open policy, numerous nostalgic foreign friends of Jewish descent have visited Hongkou.
Looking back on the evolutionary process of the district in the past century and more, we can find that the people of Hongkou had gone through ups and downs, as well as great sufferings. After the liberation of Shanghai in May 1949, under the leadership of the CPC, Hongkou people gained great achievements in economic reconstruction and other undertakings. In particular, after the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC, the focus of work was shifted to the central task of economic construction. Since 1992, as a result of the implementation of the spirit of Deng Xiaoping’s talks during his inspection tour in south China and the 14th National Congress of the CPC, new breakthroughs have been made in every aspect of the reform program, with the process of opening up externally and internally accelerated and the economic capacity of the district further enhanced. In 1997, value added at the district level totaled 2.93 billion RMB yuan, with financial income for the district at 1.032 billion RMB yuan, sales by districtrun industry at 2.11 billion RMB yuan, construction output at 728 million yuan, sales of commercial and catering sectors at 16.01 billion RMB yuan and export transactions at 1.12 billion RMB yuan. Meanwhile, the district has taken on a new look, with social undertakings going ahead at full speed, thus creating favorable conditions for future development.
As a new century is drawing near, and in face of a new situation with opportunities and challenges both existing, the Hongkou District Communist Party Committee and People’s Government, following the development requirements of Shanghai Municipality for Hongkou District and taking into account the specific conditions of the district, including its own favorable geographical location, and the present status of economic construction, urban and social development in the district, are determined to build Hongkou into a major trade and commercial service district with advanced education and cultural facilities, civilized and comfortable residential areas and riverside tourist attractions so as to be a modern urban area with sustainable economic, social and environment development. Full of vigor and confidence, the people in Hongkou are forging ahead towards their new goal.