首页 --区县志->--区志->--虹口区志->--总述

总述

2001/12/10 10:05:38

    虹口区位于上海市中心城区腹地偏东北,东与杨浦区相邻,西与闸北区毗连,南濒黄浦江、吴淞江(苏州河),与浦东新区和黄浦区隔江相望,北与宝山区接壤。1993年底,全区南北长约7.8公里,东西最宽处约3.8公里,面积23.45平方公里。户籍人口837822人。下辖13个街道(镇)。区人民政府设于海南路10号。

    虹口,因虹口港(昔称沙洪,其与黄浦江交汇处称洪口、虹口)而得名。上海开埠前,虹口地区除江湾镇、虹镇、虹口镇等集镇外,多系农田渔村。境内以虬(旧)江为界,南属上海县,北属宝山县。清道光二十五年(1845年),美国传教士在境南租地造屋。道光二十八年,辟美侨居留地。同治二年五月(1863年6月)划定美租界四至。同年八月,英美租界合并,改称英美公共租界。光绪二十五年(1899年)三月,又改称上海国际公共租界。境内南部为公共租界北区和东区的主体部分。境内租界以北地区仍分属上海、宝山两县。八一三事变后,虹口沦为日本海军警备地区,由日本海军直接管辖。抗战胜利后,租界归还中国,上海市政府建区,境内主要地域划为第十六区、十七区、十八区。民国36年(1947年),分别改称虹口区、北四川路区、提篮桥区。上海解放后,市军事管制委员会派员接管3个区公所,建立区人民政府。1956年3月,北四川路区与虹口区合并为虹口区。1959年12月,提篮桥区与虹口区合并为虹口区。1984年9月,宝山县江湾镇和大八寺(今大柏树)一带划入虹口区,形成现境。

    虹口地区水陆相接,交通便捷。

    境内原为东海之滨的滩地,多河道港汊,历史上曾有大小河流50条,迄今留存的有黄浦江、吴淞江和以虹口港、沙泾港、俞泾浦为主的虹口港水系河流15条。早年曾为吴淞江下游水道的下海浦,为船民、渔民泛海要道,后虽湮没,但清乾隆年间为供奉海神,保佑平安而建立的下海庙仍香火缭绕,遗留至今。上海开埠后,中外洋行和商轮公司借水运之便,沿江建造码头,其中汇山、公和祥等码头前沿水深8~10米,可停靠万吨级海轮。虹口沿黄浦江地带渐次发展成为上海远洋、沿海客货运的重要港口。解放后,境内黄浦江公用码头几经改组,港区设施几经改造,客货吞吐量不断增长,成为上海市国际国内水路客货运的主要集散地之一。至1993年底,沿江码头万吨级以上的泊位增至12个;公平路客运站开辟上海至青岛、大连、温州、广州等航线,为中国最大的沿海客运枢纽;外虹桥国际客运站,开辟上海至日本神户、大阪、横滨和上海至香港的定期航班,是上海唯一的国际客运码头;高阳港务公司与世界上150多个国家和地区有货运往来,是上海港重要的外贸杂货装卸骨干企业之一;汇山装卸公司以装卸和转运百杂货、生铁、矿建材料等货物为主,航线遍及南、北方沿海和长江。设在境内的上海远洋运输公司的远洋船通航世界上82个国家和地区的265个港口,是中国远洋运输公司最大的分支企业。沿港的东大名路已逐步成为以国际、国内水上运输和船务为主的航运街。

    由于港区的兴起和繁荣,境内陆上运输日见发达,19世纪末20世纪初,虹口地区已成为全市人力车行和私营汽车运输行开设最密集的地区之一。20世纪初,百老汇路(今大名路)、熙华德路(今长治路)、吴淞路、北四川路(今四川北路)等主要干道已经形成。电车、公共汽车、轮渡也已通车开航,并开设出租汽车经营点。解放前夕,境内有私营汽车运输行150余家,占全市总数的三分之一强。解放后,区境汽车运输行业经过改组、合并、扩建,分别建立上海市汽车运输第五场(今沪东汽车运输公司)和第七场(今上海市化工物品运输公司)。至80年代,沪东汽车运输公司为上海最大的综合性物资运输公司,建有全国第一座货运汽车双层停车场;上海市化工物品运输公司为全国最大的化工物品公路运输公司。同时,人民政府改造和拓宽四川北路、吴淞路、四平路、大连西路等干道,建成吴淞路闸桥和内环线高架道路境内段,使之成为连接市中心与杨浦工业区、宝山工业基地的交通要道。至1993年,区境电车、公共汽车等公交线路达50条。是年,鲁迅公园周边的11条线路和提篮桥地区的7条线路,日均客运总量分别为135.26万人次和111.85万人次,是区境客流量最繁忙地段。

    虹口地区商贸兴盛,近代工业发展较早。

    上海开埠后,以港兴市,提篮桥和吴淞路一带商业贸易逐渐发展。19世纪60年代,叶澄衷在百老汇路开设顺记洋杂货号起,中小型五金商号在其附近迅速发展,至抗战前,已发展到124家。经营商品有船舶五金、机器零件、钢铁材料、纺织五金、建筑五金、水道阀门、五金工具等,销售对象遍及全国。福德路一带,粤籍商人开设水果行栈,成为名噪一时的“广东水果一条街”。19世纪末,文监师路(今塘沽路)、汉璧礼路(今汉阳路)附近的三角地已成申城有名的菜市和牛羊肉批发处。20世纪初,租界当局越界筑路,将北四川路延伸至金家厍(今鲁迅公园处),使之成为南北干道。由于邻近当时上海陆上大门北火车站的地理优势,虹口商业中心由百老汇路、吴淞路向北四川路转移。纺织品、鞋帽、钟表、中西服装、糖果食品、南北杂货、水果、饮食等商店竞相开设,北四川路成为市区主要商业大街之一。抗战爆发后,民国27年(1938年)上海失守,境内商店多外迁或歇业,市面凋零,日侨商店猛增。民国31年,北四川路有日本公司、店铺326家,吴淞路有117家。抗战胜利后,商业一度短暂复苏,北四川路恢复为与南京路、霞飞路(今淮海中路)齐名的上海三条商业大街之一。提篮桥与东长治路成为沪东商业中心。吴淞路有“西服一条街”之称。虬江路和虬江支路一带形成闻名全市的五金日用品旧货调剂市场。1949年初,境内有各类商店7100余家。

    上海解放后,人民政府对私营商业采取代销、经销、批购、银行贷款等方式,加以扶持,逐步纳入国家资本主义轨道。并把小商小贩组织起来,使之走合作化道路。1951年,境内共有私营零售商店12849家。1956年完成社会主义改造后,区境共有公私合营商店10541家,合作商店165家,合作小组379个。1958年后,在“左”的思潮影响下,减少商业机构、合并流通渠道、撤并商业网点、关闭集贸市场,至1965年全区网点调整到2420家。“文化大革命”期间,商业市场遭受严重破坏,不少行业经营特色消失,服务质量下降。中共十一届三中全会后,坚持改革开放,逐步改变计划购销体制、扩大企业自主权,疏理流通渠道,发展多种经营,推行多种形式的经营承包责任制,组建大企业集团,搞活小企业,区内商业迅速发展,市场日益繁荣兴旺。1993年,全区共有区属商业企业6831家。四川北路商业街,经过调整,形成“繁”、“专”、“雅”三段各具特色的格局。全街401家商店,中高结合,专特为主,面向工薪阶层,坚持薄利多销,不断提高服务质量,赢得顾客信赖,1993年完成营业额30亿元,利润0.8亿元。提篮桥和东长治路商业街经过调整改造,更新设施,新建、扩建一批商店,成为专业与综合相结合的商业中心。乍浦路已有各类餐厅108家,被誉为沪上微型、豪华美食街。1990年底大柏树生产资料交易市场建立,带动了周围地区内外贸的迅猛发展,逐步形成大柏树商务中心。区境有兰生大酒店、上海大厦、新亚大酒店、远洋宾馆等星级宾馆饭店9家,有上海市第七百货商店、香港美发厅等名、特商店57家。德昌西服、维也纳皮鞋、金纶洗染、广茂香烤鸭、好吃来炒货、一定好和叶大昌食品、雷允上北号六神丸等,发挥“老字号”名店名品效应,各呈特色,以质取胜。1993年区境销售总额73.1亿元,其中区财贸系统商业销售总额49亿元,利润1.02亿元,实现销售和利润同步快速增长,居于全市各区的前列。1994~1996年,商业持续快速发展,全区商业销售额分别达到110亿元、127.2亿元、136.5亿元,名列市中心区第二。

    虹口是上海近代工业创办最早的地区之一,中小工业比较集中。19世纪50年代,美英商人在虹口沿江开设杜那普船坞和虹口、夺宾、耶松等船厂,60年代初,美商在虹口港南岸建造旗记船厂,虹口与浦东成为上海船舶修造业的两个中心。清同治四年(1865年),清廷在虹口港入黄浦江口跨岸开设国内规模最大的一家兵工厂——江南制造总局(同治八年迁至南市高昌庙镇)。翌年,粤商于东百老汇路(今东大名路)开设上海第一家民族资本的发昌机器房。此后,境内外资、官办、民族资本创办的近代工业续有发展。第一次世界大战后,境内工业发展迅速,其中以机器业为多。20世纪20、30年代,天通庵、横浜桥、西体育会路及虹口港东岸租界线两侧工厂密布,行业遍及机器、缫丝、印染、纺织、金属制品、电器等10多类。民国23年,工厂发展到1081家,约占全市工厂数的25%。其中机器业有348家,占境内工厂总数32.2%。除南洋兄弟烟草公司上海分公司、华生电器厂、美商海宁洋行(今益民食品一厂)、日商上海坩埚合资会社(今上海第二耐火材料厂)等少数规模较大外,10人以下的工厂多达384家。抗战时期,工厂损失惨重。抗战胜利后,工业出现短暂恢复。中国标准铅笔厂、信谊药厂等相继迁入区境。1950年,境内有工厂1900多家。1956年后,市各工业局所属一批工厂划归区领导,提篮桥区一度成为上海6个工业区之一。随后市属工业进行改组,区属工业开始发展。1963年,区内工厂491家,职工8.6万人,年总产值13.9亿元,主要行业由机器业转变为机电、纺织、服装与金属制品业。1964年4月,原由市、区双重领导的工业企业改为市工业局统一领导管理。1978年以后,工业企业以扩大经营自主权、推行经营承包责任制为重点,进行一系列改革、改造。1984年,全区有工厂711家,其中小型厂677家,占95.2%。年总产值49.5亿元,利润总额13.3亿元。1993年,全区工业企业有662家,职工15.99万人。其中区属346家、非区属316家;机电、化工、仪表行业占41.4%,轻工、纺织、手工业占35.34%,其他占23.26%。年总产值138.02亿元,利润总额15.58亿元。

    虹口人民谱写了革命斗争和反对外来侵略的光荣史篇。

    由于虹口地处公共租界的北区和东区,华洋杂处,这里既是白色恐怖的中心区,又是多方管辖、相对“安全”的地带,有利于革命者立足和开展隐蔽斗争。清光绪二十年(1894年),孙中山途经上海,与宋嘉树(字耀如)结为友人,东有恒路朱家木桥宋家(今东余杭路530~534号)成为革命党人秘密筹划第一次广州起义联络点之一。光绪三十二年,一批留日归国学生在横浜桥北堍创办中国公学,成为同盟会的联络点。翌年,秋瑾主编的《中国女报》在北四川路厚德里创刊。

    中国共产党创建初期,陈独秀、陈望道、沈雁冰、俞秀松等在境内传播马克思主义,从事工人运动。民国13年(1924年)6月,在共产党员向警予等领导下,胡家木桥附近的云成、物华丝厂工人罢工,要求增加工资,缩短工时,扩及14家丝厂,波及1.4万人。陈独秀撰文称这次罢工“不但是上海劳动界的一大事件,并且是全国劳动界一大事件”。民国14年春,中共第四次全国代表大会在境内召开。中共中央秘书处、交通处、宣传部、工农部、中共上海区委等机关陆续迁入境内。周恩来、陈云、罗亦农、陈延年、赵世炎、瞿秋白等领导人在境内领导过革命斗争。民国14年,五卅惨案发生后,虹口全境举行罢工、罢课、罢市,一艘日轮驶靠汇山码头,日商许高酬也无一人卸货。民国16年3月上海工人举行第三次武装起义,境内是起义最高决策机构的中共中央特委指挥联络点和上海总工会武装起义令发出地。虹口各纠察队率先举义,一举攻下4个警察所、署,有力地支持了全市武装起义。第二次国内革命战争时期,虹口是上海乃至全国文化反“围剿”斗争的前沿阵地。民国16年4月,蒋介石发动反革命政变,从各地转移来沪的中共党员潘汉年、阳翰笙、李一氓、朱镜我、彭康、洪灵菲、孟超等人聚集虹口,团结郭沫若、郑伯奇等一批文化界进步人士,建立文化统一战线,在北四川路一带开设书店,组织社团、创办刊物,掀起左翼文化运动,对国民党查禁、取缔、迫害左翼文化进行合法斗争。后又将创造社、太阳社等联合组建为以鲁迅为主将的中国左翼作家联盟。瞿秋白与鲁迅紧密合作,并肩作战,带领大批左翼文化活动分子继续同国民党御用文人展开斗争,在文化反“围剿”中,作出卓越贡献。

    20世纪30年代,一二八、八一三日军两次挑起淞沪战争,都以境内日本海军特别陆战队司令部等地为据点,出兵进攻华界。上海沦陷后,日本的领事馆、陆海军、宪、特、兴亚院等五个系统在境内均设有总部或分支机构。日本侵略军及日本浪人在虹口烧杀奸淫,强占劫夺,无恶不作,人民生命财产遭受重大损失。面对日本侵略者的残暴行径,区境军民奋起抵抗。著名的八字桥争夺战、激战汇山码头、突袭日本海军特别陆战队司令部,威震日军,为淞沪抗战绘就了壮烈的画卷。虹口人民还积极组织抗日义勇军、救护队,参加抗日救国示威游行,支援抗日基地,抵制日伪接管等抗日救亡活动,给日本侵略者以重大打击。

    解放战争时期,境内中共地下组织率领工人、学生等开展罢工、罢课、示威、声援、游行请愿等斗争,反对饥饿,反对内战,反对迫害。暨南、光华、麦伦、复兴等大中学校师生,对国民党军警镇压学生运动的暴行进行针锋相对的斗争。民国38年春,境内各条战线的中共地下党员和广大群众,开展护厂、护校,护库等斗争,里应外合,迎接解放。

    虹口地区教育、科技、文化、卫生、体育事业各有特色。

    虹口教育,门类齐全,历史上名家办学多。清光绪七年(1881年),美国传教士林乐知在境内开办中西书院。光绪十六年,南洋公学(今交通大学前身)设译书院于虹口,聘张元济为院长。民国元年(1912年),唐文治、严复等创办的神州大学从南市迁到江湾。20世纪20、30年代,共产党和国民党人士合作在境内创办上海大学,蔡元培、李石曾等创办国立劳动大学,陈望道等创办中华艺术大学,何世桢开办持志大学。此外,还有国人开办的医科大学、工业大学、铁路学堂、师范大学、美术专科、体育专科以及法学院、商学院、医学院、文学院、神学院等院校。至民国26年,境内先后出现大专院校共40多所。叶澄衷于光绪二十五年捐资创办澄衷蒙学堂,是境内国人最早开办的新式学堂。外国教会办的圣芳济学院(今北虹中学)、晏摩氏女校(今北郊中学)、麦伦书院(今继光中学)等在光绪年间先后创办或迁入。20世纪30年代两次淞沪战争,不少学校毁于日军炮火,大部分学校被迫停办或迁移。抗战胜利后,部分学校复校,至解放前夕,境内有大专院校7所,中学29所,职业学校8所,市立小学20所,私立小学108所,幼儿园32所,私塾38所。解放后,公立学校和外资津贴的教会学校先后由人民政府接管和接办,学校贯彻向工农开门的办学方针,满足工农子女入学需要。1952年全国高等学校院系调整,境内留存高校3所。60年代全区新建中学24所、小学11所。1980年后,对全区的教育结构、层次、规模及学校布局进行改革调整,发展职业技术教育。1985年开始实施义务教育条例和义务教育法。至1993年底,境内共有全日制大专院校4所,成人高校3所,体育学校5所,中学45所,职校5所,小学85所,幼儿园76所,成人中专、技校各1所,聋哑学校、工读学校各1所。复兴中学、华东师大一附中、外国语学校、第三中心小学等一批市级名校,在全国、全市有一定影响。北郊、虹口、北虹、继光、澄衷等区级重点中学也享誉沪上。这些学校,历史悠久,基础深厚,师资力量充足,设施较先进,教育质量较高。

    虹口科技与生产、应用紧密相连。民国13年,华生电器厂研制“华生牌”电扇成功。抗战胜利后,信谊药厂研制生产的“维他赐保命”、“消治龙”,被誉为“药中之王”。解放后,工厂、学校、医院等系统普遍建立科学实验小组,开展技术革新、技术革命活动。1960年前后,上海感光胶片厂的黑白胶卷、上海耐酸搪瓷厂的高压无缝钢瓶、中国染料三厂的三聚氯氰型活性染料等新产品的研制成功,均为国家填补了空白。80年代以来,成立区科技咨询服务中心,发展民营科技企业,建立科技发展基金,实施“星火”、“火炬”计划,建立科技奖励制度,成立科技专家组,依靠科技进步发展虹口经济。至1993年,区属单位在聘工程和卫生系列专业科技人员4841人,其中高级职称123人。区境有中科院、部属研究所6家,市属研究所10家,区属研究所4家,区属专业学会、协会29个,民营科技企业501家。境内院、部、市属研究所获国家科技成果奖49项,获市、部级科技成果奖400项。区属企事业单位获全国科学大会奖2项,市、部级科技成果奖10项。

    早期虹口文化,呈现民族性、外来性、革命性三大特征。广东人聚居境内为粤剧演出带来繁荣,从清同治十一年(1872年)起,境内先后形成过广舞台和广东大戏院(今群众影剧院)两个沪上演出中心。越剧、淮剧在虹口也有众多的业余爱好者,他们自编自演,十分活跃。19世纪60~80年代,同文书局、同文书会先后创办,影印中国古籍、介绍西方文化、出版《万国公报》。光绪八年,美国车利尼马戏团在外虹口广场演出,观众如潮,月余不衰。光绪三十四年,西班牙商人雷玛斯创办中国第一家正式电影院——虹口活动影戏院。至40年代末,境内先后建立电影公司47家、电影院32家,虹口成为中国电影放映事业的发祥地。民国元年,乌始光、刘海粟等在乍浦路创办上海图画美术院,揭开中国美术史的新篇章。民国15年,俞寄凡、潘天寿等在境内创办新华艺术学院(后改名新华艺术专科学校),培养出吴青霞、黄镇等一批优秀人才。民国18年,日本友人内山完造开设的内山书店,出售左翼进步书籍,聚集许多中外文化界人士,成为中外文化交流重要场所之一。是年,在窦乐安路(今多伦路)11号,中国共产党领导的第一个戏剧团体——上海艺术剧社成立,首次提出“无产阶级戏剧”口号。同年建立人文艺术大学,田汉、洪深、张大千等被聘为教授。民国19年,中国左翼作家联盟在中华艺术大学成立,以鲁迅为旗手的左翼文化运动蓬勃兴起,在中国现代文学史上留下光辉篇章。30年代,日本两次侵沪战争,境内文化设施遭到巨大破坏。抗战胜利后,境内进步文化再度活跃,培养进步艺术人才的上海戏剧专科学校(后改名为上海实验戏剧学校,现址为区教育学院实验中学),在横浜桥北首创建,顾仲彝、熊佛西先后任校长。解放后,文化事业不断发展,新建电影院、图书馆、文化馆、少年宫各1座,俱乐部2个,放映队1个,专业剧团3个及学馆1所。上海鲁迅纪念馆于1951年建立,40多年来,累计接待中外人士900万余人次。1956年,迁鲁迅墓于虹口公园(1988年改名鲁迅公园),毛泽东题写:“鲁迅先生之墓”,为全国重点文物保护单位。区境有中共四大遗址、瞿秋白寓所旧址等上海市文物保护单位及纪念地10处,成为爱国主义教育基地。改革开放后,新建曲阳文化馆、曲阳图书馆、左联会址纪念馆、虹口书画院等8家场所,改建影院场馆10座。至1993年,区境有公共文化设施30座,文化娱乐场所280家,书报刊及音像经营点300余家,业余艺术学校20余所。曲阳文化馆等10个文化单位曾先后多次荣获上海市和全国先进集体称号。虹口区被评为全国文化模范区。

    虹口医疗卫生事业具有中西医结合的特色。江湾镇素有“中医之乡”美称。清代名医李继隆、祝梦麟等人曾在境内悬壶。同治五年美国圣公会创办同仁医局。光绪三年公济医院迁入境内。光绪年间粤绅创办广肇医院,是境内国人办的首家医院。光绪三十年开办的外侨隔离医院和宣统二年(1910年)国人开办的中国公立医院,均是市内最早的传染病医院。至抗战胜利前夕,日本人先后开办医院80余所。至1949年,境内共有公、私立医院210余所,慈善机构10个。多数由于规模小、设备差,解放前夕,已关闭、停办。解放初,境内有医疗机构23个。解放后,人民政府新建、扩建各级预防保健机构。1956年私立医院改为公办,私人开业医生、工厂企业的联合保健站组成联合诊所,并进一步发展成按街道建立的地段医院。50年代后期至60年代前期,西医各科在原有基础上向专科发展,并开展西医学习中医活动。1978年后,中西医结合形成特色,区中心医院(1994年改名为上海市中西医结合医院),对脉管病、重症肌无力、硬皮病的中西医结合治疗获突破性进展,并分别设立这三种疾病的上海市中西医结合“医疗协作中心”。境内预防保健工作不断发展,1990年经世界卫生组织(WHO)考查认可,虹口设立了世界上第一个城市初级保健发展合作中心。1993年区境有市属、企业、部队卫生事业机构15个,区属卫生事业机构27个,其他医疗机构18个。区属医院设病床2075张。

    虹口体育事业起步早。早在虹口开辟租界时,基督教传教士于境内兴办学校时近代体育即已传入。光绪二十六年,基督教青年会于老靶子路(今武进路)修建操场,每年举行体育比赛。光绪三十一年,租界当局在金家厍靶场开辟虹口娱乐场(后改名虹口公园),占地21万平方米,可进行高尔夫球、网球、曲棍球、足球、篮球和田径等比赛,为当时上海设备较完善的大型体育场地。民国4年和民国10年,第二届和第五届远东运动会均在此举行,对推动上海体育由学校走向社会,由兵式操向田径、球类项目转移起了促进作用。民国11年,租界工部局又于该场西北处建成“工部局游泳池”。民国13年,武术家霍元甲创办的精武体育会(原名精武体操会)迁至境内,并蓬勃发展,其分会遍及南方各省以至东南亚国家。民国20年,国人陆礼华创办的两江女子体育专科学校迁至区境,共办22届,毕业生约1000人,人员分赴各地,有的还到东南亚国家执教,学校在日军侵沪时被毁于战火。解放后,体育事业不断发展,至1993年体育场馆有11处,建造于1951年的虹口体育场,经过两次扩建,可容纳观众3万余人,成为上海市许多重大体育活动的中心场地之一。1993年首届东亚运动会开幕式即在此举行。1958年创办的区青少年业余体育学校,1960~1993年间为国家、市、部队(军区级以上)输送运动员1259人,名列全市同类学校前列。其中,有为国家争得荣誉的第三十七、三十八届世界乒乓球锦标赛女单冠军曹燕华,第二届世界杯跳水冠军史美琴,1989年世界青年击剑锦标赛男子花剑冠军叶冲等优秀运动员。区境群众体育蓬勃开展,1988~1992年虹口区先后被评为全国“游泳之乡”、“武术之乡”。

    虹口地区是综合性住宅区。

    19世纪60年代~20世纪30年代,境内出现大量旧式里弄住宅,间有少量西式住宅。30年代,租界地区以及北四川路和施高塔路(山阴路)、狄思威路(溧阳路)一带建造一批闹中取静的新式里弄、公寓、花园洋房,是当时境内较好的住宅区域,由于房价比市中心区相对较低,吸引大批外国侨民、工商业者、知识分子、军政人员等中上层人士居住。日军入侵时,住宅房屋遭受严重破坏。上海沦陷后,不少住房被日军及日本人占用,改造成日本式。同时,日本人也新建了一些日式住房。抗战胜利后,人口骤增,住房紧张,出现大批棚户简屋。至1949年上海解放,区境新式里弄、公寓、花园住宅建筑共有108万平方米,占居住房屋23%;石库门和广式里弄住宅居多的旧式住宅有312万平方米,占66%;棚户简屋约50万平方米,占11%。

    解放后,政府重视改善劳动人民居住条件,改建危房、棚户和简屋,并建造新住宅区。1953~1983年,区境共建有广中、大连、玉田、建设、邮电等15个住宅新村,建筑面积共69.5万平方米。80年代,区内开辟国家统建、单位自建、集资参建等多种渠道,利用级差地租、开发商品房及结合市政拓路或重点工程建设改造旧居住区。海宁路的久耕里、大连西路四平路的幸福村、唐山路的唐山里等,相继拆除改建,四平路沿线地区的综合开发已初具规模。至1993年底,区内原旧居住区经拆除后,新建住宅233万平方米。昔日低矮、阴暗、潮湿、狭窄的棚户区,逐步变成多层、高层错落有致的新型居住区,城区面貌有较大改观。1984~1993年,区境新辟曲阳、运光、丰镇、凉城等4个新村,建筑面积220.39万平方米,其他住宅基地71.5万平方米,共建成住宅建筑面积291.89万平方米,是前30年建成住宅面积总和的4.2倍。解放以来,全区新辟居住区共新建住宅面积361.39万平方米,人均居住水平从1986年的5.3平方米,提高到1993年的6.5平方米。

    上海住宅建筑,30年代前后开始向高层发展。境内当时建有8层以上高楼4幢,面积7.47万平方米。其中,河滨大楼总建筑面积达5.42万平方米,是全市最大的住宅楼。1980~1993年,区境新建8层以上住宅楼118幢,是解放前的28.5倍。1993年共有高楼157幢,总面积187.8万平方米,在全市各区中,位居第二。

    与住宅建设相适应,1993年区境道路已增辟筑到240条,总长163.25公里。桥梁68座,总长2185米。雨水管道169公里,雨水泵站19座。变电站11座,总容量89.05万千伏安,供水供电基本普及。管道煤气普及率69.38%。建有公园6座,全区绿地总面积214.30万平方米,绿化覆盖率14.04%。1985年建成基本无黑烟区。1991年全区建成固定源低噪音控制区。区境市容环境质量得到明显提高。

    虹口地区曾是日本人和犹太人聚居之地。19世纪60年代境内南部划入租界后,外国侨民入境居住,以英、美、葡、俄、印度人为多。甲午战争后,日本依《马关条约》取得在华特权,来上海日侨渐增。八九十年代,日本领事馆和东本愿寺在境内建立和迁入,日侨即围绕这两个机构择址而居。百老汇路、武昌路、昆山路、闵行路一带日侨较为密集。19世纪末,境内日侨已近千人。第一次世界大战时,欧洲列强无暇东顾,日本资本抢滩上海,日侨猛增,当时越界筑路的北四川路、窦乐安路、施高塔路、狄思威路一带成为又一日本人聚居地区。20世纪20年代中期,境内日本居民已近万人。30年代时,境内日侨人数增至2万以上。民国30年(1941年)末,太平洋战争爆发,日军进占全部公共租界,虹口部分日侨奉派至苏州河南接收“敌性国(英、美、荷等国)资产”。上海沦陷期间,日侨最高峰时近10万人,其中3万余人住公共租界,虹口仍是上海日侨最集中地区。当时,境内形成一片以吴淞路、北四川路为经,两路的分支马路为纬的庞大的“日本化”街区,三角地菜场供应从长崎运来的新鲜鱼和蔬菜,到处都有日式的鱼店,小菜店、点心店,衣料店等,日本人把虹口的繁华地段称为“小东京”。日本投降后,国民政府规定,上海所有日侨在半月内到虹口集中,建立日本人自治区域,当时共有日侨10429户,79755人。民国35年起,日侨分批遣返回国,同年六七月间,遣返结束。在日本侵略者统治下,有些日本人士仍对中国人表示友好,有的还帮助中国革命者、进步人士开展工作,进行掩护。解放后,特别是改革开放后,日本人士来区探访者众多。

    20世纪30年代,德国法西斯推行排犹、灭犹政策,大批欧洲犹太人被迫背井离乡,寻求栖身之地。当时上海是世界上唯一不需要入境签证和财产担保的都市,因而成批中欧犹太人到上海避难。民国27、28年,形成难民潮,几年中累计入境人数约1.8万人,多数安置在虹口提篮桥一带,建立华德路138号(今长阳路138弄)、爱尔考克路(今安国路)、兆丰路(今高阳路)、汇山路(今霍山路)等难民中心和收容所。民国29年12月,登记的犹太难民达2万人,其中住虹口的人数1.4~1.5万人。民国32年,日本当局在境内建立隔离区,逼迫犹太难民在限期内迁入,并实施保甲制度。是年,居住在虹口的犹太人增至1.7万人。在虹口的犹太难民,少数住收容所,多数与中国居民杂处,他们和中国居民友好相处,患难与共。中国居民为犹太难民腾房子、介绍工作。犹太难民在开商店、办事业、建家园、从事技术服务的同时,也为复兴虹口作出贡献,提篮桥地区十几条街道出现短期繁荣。第二次世界大战结束后,犹太难民陆续离境,移居世界各地。但他们对上海这段生活难以忘怀,常常称自己为“上海犹太人”,视上海为“第二故乡”。改革开放以来,到虹口来访问、怀旧的犹太裔外宾络绎不绝。

    回顾百余年来区境的形成和发展历程,虹口人民历经曲折和苦难,1949年5月,随着上海解放,虹口人民在中国共产党的领导下,经济建设和各项事业取得巨大成就。中共十一届三中全会后,实现以经济建设为中心的工作重点转移。1992年起,贯彻邓小平南方谈话和中共第十四次代表大会精神,各项改革取得新的突破,对内对外开放不断扩大,全区经济实力明显增强。1997年,区级增加值达到29.3亿元;区级财政收入10.32亿元;区属工业销售产值21.1亿元;建筑业总产值7.28亿元;商业饮食业销售收入160.1亿元;出口拨交额11.2亿元。同时,城市面貌发生显著变化,社会事业全面推进,为未来的发展创造了良好条件。

    在此世纪之交,面对机遇和挑战的新形势,中共虹口区委和区人民政府依照上海市发展对虹口区的要求,同时根据虹口区位优势的特点,结合区的经济建设、城市建设和社会发展现实,决心把虹口建成上海的主要商贸服务区、教育文化先进区、文明舒适居住区和滨江旅游地区之一,成为经济、社会、环境可持续发展的现代化城区。虹口人民正以高昂的战斗姿态向新的目标奋进。

总述 英译

General Survey

    Hongkou District is situated by the northeast of downtown Shanghai, bordering on Yangpu District on the east, Zhabei District on the west, Pudong New Area and Huangpu District across the Huangpu River and Wusong Creek (Suzhou Creek) to the south, and Baoshan District on the north. At the end of 1993, the district had an area of 23.45 square kilometers, extending some 7.8 kilometers northsouth and about 3.8 kilometers eastwest, and a registered population of 837,822, with 13 subdistricts (town) under it. The seat of the District People’s Government is at 10 Hainan Road.

    Hongkou is named after Hongkougang Creek (formerly known as Shahong, with its juncture with the Huangpu River known as Hongkou). Before the opening of Shanghai as a trading port, Hongkou area consisted mainly of farmland and fishing villages, with the exception of the towns of Jiangwan, Hong and Hongkou. The Qiujiang old river marked the boundary of the district, south of which was Shanghai County and north of which Baoshan County. In the 25th year of the reign of Daoguang (1845), Qing Dynasty, American missionaries rented a piece of land in the south of the area and built houses there. In the 28th year of Daoguang, a settlement of American nationals was established. In the fifth month of the 2nd year of Tongzhi (June 1863), four American settlements were designated. In the eighth month of the same year, the British and American settlements were combined to be known as the joint BritishAmerican Settlement. In the third month of the 25th year of Guangxu (1899), it was renamed Shanghai International Settlement. The southern part of the district constituted the main part of the northern and eastern areas of the International Settlement. The part of the district north of the International Settlement remained under the jurisdiction of Shanghai and Baoshan Counties respectively. After the August 13 Incident of 1937,  Hongkou, occupied by the Japanese navy, was under its direct rule. Upon the victory of the War Against Japanese Aggression (19371945), the said concession was returned to China and districts were established by the Shanghai Municipal Government, with main parts of the present district designated as the 16th, 17th and 18th districts. In the 36th year of the Republic  (1947), they were renamed respectively Hongkou District, North Sichuan Road District and Tilanqiao District. After the liberation of Shanghai, the Municipal Military Administrative Commission sent officers to take over the three district administrative offices and established district people’s governments. In March 1956, North Sichuan Road District and Hongkou District were merged to become part of Hongkou District. In December 1959, Tilanqiao District was merged with Hongkou District to become part of Hongkou District. In September 1984, Jiangwan Town and Dabasi (now known as Dabaishu) area of Baoshan County were incorporated into Hongkou District as it is known today.

    Located where land and water meet, Hongkou District is convenient in transportation.

    The district was once beaches on the East China Sea, crisscrossed with creeks and rivers. Historically, there used to be 50 creeks and rivers of different lengths and at present only 15 of them remain, notably the Huangpu River,  Wusong Creek and the Hongkougang river system composed mainly of Hongkougang, Shajinggang and Yujingpu. Xiahaipu (gotosea river), which used to be the lower reach of the Wusong Creek and the access to the sea for boat people and fishermen, is no longer in existence. But the GotoSea Temple built during Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty to house the Sea God for ensuring  peace and safety remains today, attracting a large number of worshippers. After the opening of Shanghai as a trading port, Chinese and foreign trading firms and shipping companies, taking advantage of the convenient water transportation, built docks along the river of which Huishan and Gonghexiang docks, 810 meters in water depth by the wharfs, could accommodate seagoing vessels with displacements of 10,000 tons. Later, the area along the Huangpu River developed into a major port for ocean and coastal passenger and cargo transportation in Shanghai. After liberation, thanks to a series of reorganizations of the public wharfs along the Huangpu River in the district and renovations of port facilities, their handling capacities steadily increased and the port area  became one of the hubs of international and domestic passenger and cargo water transportation in Shanghai. By the end of 1993, the number of wharfs along the river capable of handling  more than 10,000 tons had increased to 12. The Gongping Road Passenger Transportation Terminal, with shipping lines from Shanghai to Qingdao, Dalian, Wenzhou and Guangzhou, had become the largest coastal passenger transportation hub in China. The Outer Hongqiao International Passenger Transportation Terminal, with scheduled liners from Shanghai to Kobe, Osaka, and Yokohama of Japan, as well as to Hong Kong, is the only international passenger transportation terminal in Shanghai. Gaoyang Port Service Company has maintained cargo transportation ties with more than 150 countries and regions in the world and is one of the major foreign trade general cargo handling enterprises in Shanghai Port. Huishan Handling Company is specialized in handling and transshipping cargoes ranging from articles of daily use to pig iron, minerals and construction materials. The routes it serves extend to China’s northern and southern coasts and the Changjiang River. The Shanghai Ocean Shipping Company, located in the district and with oceangoing vessels sailing to 265 ports in 82 countries and regions of the world, is the largest subsidiary of China Ocean Shipping Company. East Daming Road along the harbor has gradually become a shipping thoroughfare specialized in international and domestic water transportation and shipping services.

    Thanks to the development and boom of the port area, land transportation within the district also expanded. Around the turn of the century, Hongkou had become one of the areas in the city where rickshaw companies and private motor transportation companies were concentrated. At the beginning of the 20th century, main artery roads, such as Broadway Road (now called Daming Road), Seward Road (the presentday Changzhi Road), Wusong Road and North Sichuan Road (the presentday Sichuan Road(N)), were already in place. Tram cars, buses and ferry boats were in service and many taxi operators established. On the eve of liberation, there were more than 150 private motor transport companies in the district, accounting for more than onethird of the city’s total. After liberation, as a result of reorganization, merging and expansion in the transport sector, Shanghai No.5 Motor Transport Depot (presentday Hudong Motor Transport Company) and No.7 Motor Transport Depot (presentday Shanghai Chemicals Transport Company) were successively established. By the 1980s Hudong Motor Transport Company became the largest comprehensive materials transport company in Shanghai with a twostoreyed parking lot for cargo transport vehicles, the first of its kind in China. Shanghai Chemicals Transport Company was the largest highway transport company for chemicals in China. Meanwhile, the People’s Government rebuilt and widened Sichuan Road(N), Wusong Road, Siping Road, Dalian Road(W) and other main roads, constructed Wusong Road floodgate bridge and the section of the Inner Ring viaduct in the district, so that they become the artery roads linking the downtown area with Yangpu industrial zone and Baoshan industrial base. By 1993, there were as many as 50 trolleybus and bus routes in the district. In that year, the 11 routes around Lu Xun Park and the 7 routes in Tilanqiao area carried an average daily total of 1,352,600 and 1,118,500 passenger times respectively, being the busiest parts in the district in terms of passenger traffic.

    Hongkou District is distinguished for its booming trade and commerce, with modern industry developed quite early.

    After Shanghai was opened as a trading port, its busy dock activities brought about a flourishing market and as a result, trade and commerce developed gradually around Tilanqiao and Wusong Road.

    In the 1860s, with the opening by Ye Chengzhong of Shun’s Foreign Sundries Store on Broadway Road, small and mediumsized hardware stores grew very rapidly nearby. By the eve of the War Against Japanese Aggression, the number of such stores reached 124. The commodities dealt in ranged from ship hardware, machinery parts, steel materials, textile hardware, construction hardware, water pipes and valves to hardware tools, and they were sold to customers from all over the country. Fruit storehouses were opened along Fude Road by tradesmen from Guangdong, thus making the road known far and wide as the road of Guangdong fruits. At the end of the 19th century, the triangular area near W.J.Boone Road (now Tanggu Road) and Hanbury Road (now Hanyang Road) had become a wellknown vegetable market and wholesale center for beef and mutton in Shanghai. At the beginning of the 20th century, the authorities in the concession constructed a road across the border by extending North Sichuan Road to Jingjiashe (now the site of Lu Xun Park), making it a northsouth artery road. Taking advantage of its geographic location close to the Shanghai Railway Station, the then land gateway to Shanghai, the commercial center of Hongkou soon shifted from Broadway Road and Wusong Road to North Sichuan Road. Shops opened there one after another dealing in textiles, shoes and hats, clocks and watches, Chinese and western garments, confectionery and snacks, dry delicacies from north and south China, fruits, and foodstuff and beverages. As a result, North Sichuan Road became one of the main shopping streets in the city’s downtown area. When Shanghai fell not long after the outbreak of the War Against Japanese Aggression in the 27th year of the Republic (1938), many shops in the district either moved out or closed, so that market was slack and Japaneseowned stores sprang up. In the 31st year of the Republic, there were 326 Japanese companies and shops on North Sichuan Road and 117 on Wusong Road. After China’s victory over Japan, there was a brief resurgence of business and North Sichuan Road resumed its position as one of the three shopping streets in Shanghai, the other two being Nanjing Road and Avenue Joffre (now Huaihai Road(C)). Tilanqiao and East Changzhi Road became the commercial center in east Shanghai, while Wusong Road was known as the road of western suits. The area along Qiujiang Road and its branch road developed into a market for secondhand hardware and articles of daily use well known in the city. In early 1949, there were more than 7,100 shops of various kinds in the district.

    After the liberation of Shanghai, the People’s Government supported private businesses by allowing them to engage in proxy sales, distribution and wholesale and providing them with bank loans so as to lead them gradually on to the track to state capitalism. At the same time, the government organized small tradesmen and hawkers into cooperatives. In 1951, there were 12,849 private retail shops in the district. After the completion of socialist transformation in 1956, there were here 10,541 joint stateprivateowned shops, 165 cooperative stores and 379 cooperative groups. After 1958, as a result of the influence of “leftist” ideology, commercial establishments were reduced, goods flow channels merged, business outlets scaled down, and country fairs cancelled. By 1965, the number of commercial outlets in the district was reduced to 2,420. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the commercial market was devastated, the specialties of many sectors were lost and the quality of service declined. After the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the CPC, thanks to the implementation of the reform and open policy, the planned purchase and sale system was restructured, the autonomy of the enterprises expanded, the flow channel rationalized and business operations persified. Furthermore, various forms of the contractual responsibility system were introduced, large enterprise groups were organized and small enterprises invigorated. As a  result, the commerce in the district registered rapid expansion and the market became ever brisker. In 1993, there were 6,831 districtadministered commercial enterprises in the district.

    After readjustment, the shopping street of Sichuan Road(N) developed into three sections characterized by persity, specialization and elegance respectively. By combining mediumlevel stores with deluxe shops, focussing on specialities and meeting the needs of the salaried class, they earned small profits but realized a large turnover. All these, coupled with constantly improving service quality, had won the trust of the customers. As a result, the 401 shops along the road accomplished 3 billion RMB yuan in turnover and 80 million RMB yuan in profits in 1993. The commercial roads at Tilanquao and East Changzhi Road, after readjustment and renovation, and through introduction of new facilities and the construction and expansion of a group of shops, became a commercial center combining specialization with comprehensiveness. Zhapu Road was now lined with 108 restaurants of various types and was reputed as the miniature deluxe gourmets’ road in Shanghai. At the end of 1990, a market for means of production was established at Dabaishu, thus giving an impetus to the rapid development of domestic and foreign trade around the area, and gradually the Dabaishu commercial center took shape. In the district, there were now nine stargraded hotels, including Lansheng Hotel, Shanghai Mansion, New Asia Hotel, Ocean Hotel, and 57 wellknown specialized shops, including Shanghai No. 7 Department Store and Hong Kong Hairdresser’s. Dechang western garments, Vienna leather shoes, Jinlun laundry and dyeing, Guangmaoxiang roast duck, Haochilai roasted seeds and nuts, Yidinghao and Yedachang food and (north) Leiyunshang’s Liu Shen Wan were all wellknown special quality products by timehonored shops. In 1993, a total of 7.31 billion RMB yuan in sales were accomplished in the district, of which 4.9 billion RMB yuan were accomplished by commercial enterprises in the district’s finance and trade sector, with 102 million yuan in profits. The rapid synchronized growth both in sales and profits placed Hongkou in the front rank of all districts in the city. Between 1994 and 1996, commerce continued to develop rapidly, with commercial sales in the whole district totaling 11 billion, 12.72 billion and 13.65 billion RMB yuan respectively, ranking second among the downtown districts of the city.

    As one of the earliest areas in Shanghai in the development of modern industry, Hongkou is known for its comparatively large concentration of small and mediumsized industrial establishments. In the 1850s, American and British businessmen opened J.Dewsnap Dockyard and Hongkew, Bubirt and Yesong shipyards along the river in Hongkou. In early 1860s, American businessmen built Qiji Shipyard on the southern bank of Hongkougang, thus making Hongkou as well as Pudong two shipbuilding and repairing centers in Shanghai. In Tongzhi Year 4 (1865), the Qing court opened on both sides of Hongkougang, where the river emptied itself into the Huangpu River, the largest  armament factory in China, known as Jiangnan Machine Building Works, which moved to Gaochangmiao Town, Nanshi, in Tongzhi Year 8 (1869). The next year, a Cantonese businessman established Fachang Machinery Works, the first of its kind built with national capital in Shanghai, on East Broadway Road (now East Daming Road). From then on, modern industry continued to develop in the district, financed by foreign capital, national capital or the Chinese government. After the First World War, the industry in the district, especially machinery industry, witnessed fast growth. In the 1920s and 1930s, Tiantong’an, Hengbang Bridge, Tiyuhui Road (W) and both sides of the boundary of the Settlement east of Hongkougang were dotted with factories of more than ten sectors, ranging from machinery, silk spinning, printing and dyeing, textiles, metal products to electrical apparatus. In the 23rd year of the Republic (1934), the number of factories increased to 1,081, accounting for about 25% of the total number of factories in the city, of which 384 were in the machinery sector, accounting for 32.2% of the factory total in the district. In addition to a few factories of fairly large sizes, such as Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company Shanghai Branch, Wahson Electrical Apparatus Works, Americanrun Haining Trade Company (now Yimin No.1 Food Factory) and Japaneserun Shanghai Crucible Cooperative Company (presentday Shanghai No.2 Refractory Materials Works), there were as many as 384 factories with less than 10 persons each. During the War Against Japanese Aggression, factories in the district suffered heavy losses.

    After the victory of the War, there was a short period of industrial revival. Factories such as China Standard Pencil Factory and Sine Pharmaceutical Works moved into the district one after another. In 1950, there were more than 1,900 factories in the district. After 1956, many factories under various industrial bureaus of the city were put under the leadership of the district, and Tilanqiao area once became one of the six industrial zones in the city. As a result of the reorganization of municipalityrun industry, districtowned industry began to develop. In 1963, there were 491 factories in the district, employing 86,000 persons and turning out 1.39 billion RMB yuan in value annually, with machinery giving way to mechanoelectrical, textile, garment and metal products as the leading sectors. In April 1964, industrial enterprises originally under the dual leadership of the municipality and the district were placed under the overall leadership and administration of the municipal industrial bureaus. After 1978, industrial enterprises went through a series of restructuring and reorganization processes, focussing on the expansion of operational autonomy and introduction of contractual operational responsibility system. In 1984, there were 711 factories in the district, of which 677 were smallsized, accounting for 95.2%, with an annual output value of 4.95 billion RMB yuan and total profits of 1.33 billion RMB yuan. In 1993, there were 662 industrial enterprises in the district employing 159,900 staffers and workers. Of these enterprises, 346 were districtrun and 316 were nondistrictrun, With respect to proportions, 41.4% were in mechanoelectrical, chemical, instrument and meter sectors, 35.34% in light industry, textile and handicrafts and 23.26% in other sectors, with an annual output value of 13.802 billion RMB yuan and total profits of 1.558 billion RMB yuan.

    The people in Hongkou had a glorious tradition in waging revolutionary struggles and opposing foreign aggression.

    As Hongkou in former days covered the northern and eastern parts of the International Settlement, where Chinese and foreign intermingled, it was at once the center of white terror and a relatively “safe” area due to multijurisdiction, the latter creating favorable conditions for revolutionaries to secure a foothold and carry out secret struggles. In the 20th year of Guangxu, Qing dynasty (1894), Dr Sun Yatsen stopped over at Shanghai and became friends with Song Jiashu (styled Yaoru). So Song’s home at  Zhujiamuqiao, Dongyouheng Road (presentday 530534 East Yuhang Road) became one of the contact points for the revolutionaries to secretly plan the first Guangzhou uprising. In the 32nd year of Guangxu, a group of returned students from Japan established at the north end of Hengbang Bridge the China Public School, which became a contact point for Tongmenghui. The next year, China Women’s Paper, with Qiu Jin as the editorinchief, started publication at Houdeli, North Sichuan Road.

    When the Communist Party of China (CPC) was first established, Chen Duxiu, Chen Wangdao, Sheng Yanbing and Yu Xiusong disseminated Marxism and engaged in labor movement in the district. In June of the 13th year of the Republic (1924), under the leadership of the wellknown communist Xiang Jingyu, the workers from Yuncheng and Wuhua Silk Works at Hujiamuqiao went on strike, demanding increased wages and shortened work hours. The strike soon spread to 14 silk works and 14,000 persons were involved. Chen Duxiu wrote an article lauding this strike as “a major event in the labor movement not only in Shanghai, but also in the whole country.” In the spring of the 14th year of the Republic, the Fourth National Congress of the CPC was held in the district. The secretariat, communications pision, propaganda department, workers and peasants department of the CPC’s Central Committee, CPC Shanghai District Committee and other Party organs moved into the district one after another, where Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun, Luo Yinong, Chen Yannian, Zhao Shiyan, Qu Qiubai and other leaders led revolutionary struggles. In the 14th year of the Republic, after the occurrence of the May 30th Massacre, workers, students and shopkeepers in whole Hongkou went on strike. When a Japanese ship docked at N.Y.K. Wharf, no one was on hand to unload her, though the Japanese owner offered high payments. In March of the 16th year of the Republic, workers in Shanghai staged the Third Armed Uprising. It was from Hongkou District that the Special Committee of the Central Committee of the CPC, the supreme decisionmaking organ of the uprising, directed the contact points and the Shanghai General Federation of Trade Unions issued orders for the uprising. The pickets in Hongkou took the lead in rising up in arms and captured four police stations at one go, thus providing powerful support for the citywide armed uprising. In the period of the Second Revolutionary Civil War, Hongkou was the front post in the struggle against “encirclement and annihilation campaign” in  the cultural field in Shanghai and, in fact, in the whole country. In April 1927, Chiang Kaishek launched a counterrevolutionary coup. CPC members, among them Pan Hannian, Yang Hansheng, Li Yimang, Zhu Jingwo, Peng Kang, Hong Lingfei and Meng Chao, who evacuated from various places, congregated in Hongkou and united with Guo Moruo, Zheng Boqi and other progressives in the cutlural circles to establish a cultural united front and launched a leftwing cultural campaign by opening bookstores, organizing associations and starting journals along North Sichuan Road in a legitimate struggle against the Kuomintang’s banning, outlawing and persecution of leftwing culture. Later on, they further combined the Creation Society, the Sun Society and other progressive organizations into the Chinese LeftWing Writers’ Union, with Lu Xun as the chief commander. Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun, cooperating closely and fighting shoulder to shoulder, led large numbers of leftwing cultural activists in continuing their struggle against Kuomintang hack writers, thus making outstanding contributions to the said  struggleagainst the “encirclement and annihilation” in the cultural field.

    In the 1930s, when the Japanese military provoked the two fierce battles in Shanghai area that started separately on January 28, 1932 and August 13, 1937, they used the headquarters of Japanese special marine corps stationed in the district as their base in their attack on Chinese territory. After the fall of Shanghai, the Japanese consulate, army and navy, gendarmerie, special service and Asia Development Institute maintained their headquarters or branch offices in the district. The Japanese aggressor troops and ronins burnt, killed, looted and raped in Hongkou, stopping at nothing, thus inflicting tremendous losses on the lives and properties of the people. In face of Japanese atrocities, the army and people in the district rose in selfdefense. The wellknown battle for Bazi Bridge, the fierce battle at N.Y.K. Wharf and the commando raid on the headquarters of the Japanese special marine corps struck terror into the hearts of the Japanese invaders and are glorious pages in the annals of the battles against Japanese invasion in Shanghai area. The people of Hongkou also actively organized antiJapanese volunteers and firstaid teams, participated in antiJapanese and national salvation activities, including antiJapanese demonstrations, supporting antiJapanese bases and boycotting the takeover by Japanese aggressors and their puppets, thus dealing heavy blows to the Japanese aggressors.

    During the war of liberation, CPC underground organizations in the district led workers and students in holding strikes, demonstrations, support rallies and petitions to oppose hunger, the civil war and persecution. Students from universities and middle schools, such as Jinan, Guanghua, Mailun and Fuxing, gave tit for tat to the KMT armed police who committed atrocities in suppressing the student movement. In the spring of 1949, CPC underground members and the broad masses in various circles in the district coordinated their struggles from within with the PLA forces attacking on the outside by guarding factories, schools, and warehouses to greet the liberation of the city.

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    Hongkou District is also distinguished for its education, science and technology, culture, health service and sports.

    Education in Hongkou is complete in range and scope. Historically, most schools were established by celebrities. In the 7th year of Guangxu, Qing Dynasty (1881), the American Missionary Young John Allen opened the SinoOccident College in the district. In the 16th year of Guangxu, Nanyang Public School (the forerunner of the presentday Jiaotong University) established a translation school in  Hongkou, with Zhang Yuanji appointed as its president. In the first year of the Republic (1912), ShenzhouUniversity, established by Tang Wenzhi, Yan Fu et al moved from Nanshi to Jiangwan. In the 1920s and 1930s, CPC and KMT members jointly established Shanghai University in the district. Cai Yuanpei and Li Shizeng established the National Labor University. Chen Wangdao and others established the Chinese University of Arts. He Shizhen established Chizhi University. In addition, there were medical colleges, universities of industry and engineering, railway college, normal universities, fine arts college and sports college, as well as schools of law, business, medicine, liberal arts and theology, established by Chinese nationals. By 1937, there were more than 40 universities and colleges in the district.

    In the 25th year of Guangxu, Ye Chengzhong donated money for the establishment of Chengzhong Enlightenment School, which was the earliest modern school established in the district by a Chinese national. Missionary schools, such as St. Francis Xavier’s College (presentday Beihong Middle School), Elizayates Girls’ High School (presentday Beijiao Middle School) and Medhurst College (presentday Jiguang Middle School) were either established or moved into the district in the Guangxu period. During the two battles in Shanghai in the 1930s, many schools were destroyed by Japanese gunfire and most of the other schools were either forced to close down or move. After the victory of the War Against Japanese Aggression, some schools were restored. On the eve of liberation, there were in the district 7 institutions of higher learning, 29 middle schools, 8 vocational schools, 20 municipal primary schools and 108 private primary schools, 32 kindergartens, and 38 oldstyle private schools. After liberation, public and foreignsubsidized missionary schools, taken over one after another by the People’s Government, implemented the policy of opening their doors to workers and peasants so as to meet the needs of their children for schooling. In 1952, as a result of the reorganization of colleges and departments in the institutions of higher learning throughout the country, three institutions of higher learning remained in the district. In the 1960s, 24 new middle schools and 11 primary schools were established in the district. After 1980, the structure, level and scale of education and location of schools in the district were readjusted and vocational and technical education was developed. In 1985, the law and regulations on compulsory education began to be implemented. By the end of 1993, there were within the district 4 fulltime institutions of higher learning, 3 adult colleges, 5 sports schools, 45 middle schools, 5 vocational schools, 85 primary schools, 76 kindergartens, one adult secondary specialized school, one adult secondary technical school, one school for deafmutes and one reform school. Fuxing Middle School, No.1 Affiliated Middle School of the East China Normal University, Shanghai Foreign Languages School and Hongkou District No.3 Central Primary School are wellknown schools at the municipality level that have considerable influence throughout the country as well as in the city. Beijiao, Hongkou, Beihong, Jiguang and Chengzhong are key secondary schools at the district level that enjoy a high reputation in the whole city. All these schools are distinguished for their long histories, solid foundations, highly qualified teaching staffs, advanced facilities and high standard of education.

    The development of science and technology in Hongkou is closely linked with production and application. In 1924, Wahson Electrical Apparatus Works successfully developed the Wahson Brand electrical fans. After the victory of the War Against Japanese Aggression, Sine Pharmaceutical Factory developed Vitaspermin and Sulfathiazole, then known as the “kings of medicine”. After liberation, scientific research groups were organized and technical innovations and technical revolutions carried out on a wide scale in factories, schools and hospitals. Around 1960, the successful development of new products, such as the blackandwhite films of Shanghai Photosensitive Film Factory, the high pressure seamless steel cylinders of Shanghai AcidResistant Enamel Works and the reactive dye of trichlorocyanogen type of China No.3 Dyes Works, filled gaps in their respective fields for the state. Since the 1980s, major steps have been taken to promote the progress in science and technology for economic development of Hongkou, including the establishment of the district scientific and technical consultancy service center, development of private scientific and technological enterprises, setting up of foundations for scientific and technical development, implementation of the Spark and Torch programs, introduction of a reward system in the scientific and technological circles and the forming of the Group of ScienceTechnology Experts. By 1993, there were 4,841 professional scientists and technicians in the engineering and medical fields working in districtrun units, of whom 123 had senior professional titles. In the district are now located 6 research institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences or ministries, 10 municipalityadministered research institutes, 4 districtadministered research institutes, 29 districtadministered professional societies and associations and 501 private scientific and technological enterprises. In all, 49 statelevel awards and 400 municipal and ministerial awards for scientific and technological achievements have been won by research institutes under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, ministries and Shanghai Municipality located in the district. Two awards of the National Science Conference and 10 municipal and ministerial awards for scientific and technological achievements have been won by districtadministered enterprises and institutions.

    Historically, early culture in Hongkou was at once nationalistic, foreign and revolutionary in character. The settlement by Cantonese in the district brought about a boom in Canton opera. After the 11th year of Tongzhi (1872), Qing Dynasty, two performing centers in Shanghai, namely, Guang Theater and Guangdong Theater (presentday Qunzhong Theater), were established. Shaoxing opera and Huai opera also had numerous fans in Hongkou, who were so enthusiastic as to write the plays and perform themselves. Between the 1860s and 1880s, Tongwen Press and Tongwen Book Society were successively established to photocopy Chinese classics, introduce Western culture and publish Bulletins on the World. In the 8th year of Guangxu, the Cheliney Circus from America performed in Outer Hongkou Square, which was packed to capacity, and the show ran on for over a month. In the 34th year of Guangxu, the Spanish merchant Leimasi opened the first formal cinema in ChinaHongkou Moving Picture House. By the end of the 1940s, 47 film companies and 32 cinemas had been established at different times in the district, making Hongkou the cradle of Chinese film and projection industry. In the first year of the Republic (1912), Wu Shiguang, Liu Haisu et al established the first painting and fine arts institute in Shanghai on Zhapu Road, thus opening a new chapter in the annals of Chinese fine arts. In 1916, Yu Jifan and Pan Tianshou established in the district the Hsinhua Arts Institute (later renamed Xinhua Arts College), where such outstanding talents as Wu Qingxia and Huang Zhen were trained. In 1929, a Japanese friend, Kanza Uchiyama, opened the Uchiyama Bookstore, where leftwing progressive books were sold and many Chinese and foreigners in the cultural circles gathered, and which became one of the major venues for cultural exchange between China and foreign countries. In the same year, at 11 Darroh Road (today’s Duolun Road), the first theatrical group under the leadership of the CPC-Shanghai Artistic Theatrical Society-was established, which was the first to put forward the slogan “theater for the proletariat”. Meanwhile, the Liberal Arts University was established, with Tian Han, Hong Sheng and Zhang Daqian invited as professors. In 1930, the Union of Chinese Leftwing Writers was founded at Chinese Arts University and the leftwing cultural movement, with Lu Xun as the standardbearer, was launched, thus opening a new chapter in the history of contemporary Chinese literature. In the 1930s, when the Japanese invaded Shanghai on two occasions, cultural facilities in the district were seriously damaged. After the victory over Japan, progressive cultural activities revived and, to train progressive artists, Shanghai Theatrical College (later renamed Shanghai Experimental Theatrical School) was first established at the north end of Hengbang Bridge, where the present Experimental Middle School of the District Education College is now located, with Gu Zhongyi and Xiong Foxi successively as the principals.

     After liberation, cultural undertakings kept developing, with a cinema, a library, a cultural center, a children’s palace, two clubs, a projection team, three professional theatrical troupes and one trouperun theatrical school newly built. Shanghai Lu Xun Memorial Hall was established in 1951 and, in the past forty years and more, it has received a total of more than 9 million Chinese and foreign visitors. In 1956, the tomb of Lu Xun was moved to Hongkou Park (renamed Lu Xun Park in 1988) and, honored with the inscription“鲁迅先生之墓”(Tomb of Mr.Lu Xun) by Mao Zedong, is one of the key protected historical and cultural sites at the national level. In the district, there are now 10 protected historical and cultural sites and memorial places at Municipal level, including the site of the Fourth National Congress of the CPC and the former residence of Qu Qiubai, all of which have become bases for education in patriotism. After the implementation of the reform and open policy, 8 cultural establishments were newly built, including Quyang Cultural Center, Quyang Library, Memorial Hall of the site of the Leftwing Writers’ Union and Hongkou Calligraphy and Painting Academy, and ten cinemas and theaters rebuilt. By 1993, there were 30 public cultural establishments, 280 entertainment places, 300odd dealers in books, newspapers, audio and visual materials, and more than 20 sparetime art schools in the district. Ten cultural units, including Quyang Cultural Center, have been more than once awarded the title of Advanced Collective at Mumicipal or state level, and Hongkou District is appraised as a statelevel model district in cultural development.

    Health care in Hongkou district is characterized by its integration of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and Jiangwan Town has always been known as the home of traditional Chinese medicine. The famous Qing doctors Li Jilong and Zhu Menglin used to practice medicine in the district. In the 5th year of Tongzhi, American Episcopal Church established Tongren Hospital. In the 3rd year of Guangxu, the General Hospital moved into the district. In the period of Guangxu, a rich Cantonese established Guangzhao Hospital, the first hospital established in the district by the Chinese themselves. The isolation hospital for foreigners established in Guangxu Year 30 (1904) and the Chinese Public Hospital set up by the Chinese in Xuantong Year 2 (1910) were the earliest hospitals for infectious diseases in Shanghai. On the eve of the victory over Japan, there were more than 80 Japaneserun hospitals in the district. By 1949, there were more than 210 public and private hospitals and 10 charity institutions in the district, most of which closed down or stopped operation before liberation because of their small scale and poor  equipment. In the early postliberation period, there were 23 medical institutions in the district.

    After liberation, the People’s Government built and expanded disease preventive and health care institutions at various levels. In 1956, private hospitals went public and private practitioners and the united health centers in factories and enterprises formed united clinics and, later on, community hospitals based on neighborhood affiliations. From late 1950s to early 1960s, different departments of western medicine became more specialized and doctors in these departments were encouraged to learn from traditional Chinese medicine. After 1978, the integration of western and Chinese medicines developed its own unique features and breakthroughs were made at the District Central Hospital (in 1994 renamed Shanghai Hospital for Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicines) in treating vascular diseases, acute amyasthenia and chorionitis by combining traditional Chinese and western medicines. Accordingly, Shanghai “medical coordination centers” for treating these three diseases by combining Chinese and western medicines were successively formed. Meanwhile, disease prevention and health care continued to make headway in the district. In 1990, with endorsement by the World Health Organization (WHO), Hongkou established the first urban primary health care development cooperative center in the world. In 1993, within the district, there were 15 health institutions administered respectively by the municipality, enterprises or army units, 27 health institutions administered by the district and 18 medical institutions of various types. There were 2,075 beds in the districtadministered hospitals.

    The development of sports in Hongkou can be traced back to a very early date. As early as the days when concessions were first opened in Hongkou and Christian missionaries began to establish schools in the district, modern sports were already introduced. In Guangxu Year 26 (1900), the YMCA built a sports ground at Range Road (presentday Wujin Road) where sports meets were held every year. In Guangxu Year 31 (1905), the authorities in the settlement opened up the Hongkou Recreation Ground (later renamed Hongkou Park) on the shooting range at Jinjiashe, covering an area of 210,000 square meters, where golf, tennis, hockey, football and basketball matches as well as track and field events could be held. It was a fairly wellequipped large sports ground in Shanghai at the time. In the 4th and 10th years of the Republic (1915 and 1921), the 2nd and 5th Far East Games were held here, thus contributing to the extention of sports activities from schools to society at large and to the shifting of their emphasis from military drills to field and track events and ball games. In 1912, the Shanghai Municipal Council (SMC) of the International Settlement built an SMC Swimming Pool northwest of the sports ground. In 1924, the Jingwu Sports Association (formerly Jingwu Gymnastics Association  established by the martial art master Huo Yuanjia) moved into the district and grew very rapidly, with its branches spread to all southern provinces and even to southeastern Asian countries. In 1931, the Liangjiang Women’s Sports Specialized School, established by Lu Lihua, a Chinese national, moved into the district and all together, 22 classes were trained in the school that turned out about 1,000 graduates, who were assigned to various parts of the nation and even to southeastern Asian countries as teachers. The school was  destroyed in the war when Japanese troops invaded Shanghai.

    After liberation, sports undertakings kept growing in Hongkou, and by 1993, there were 11 stadiums and gymnasiums in the district. The Hongkou Stadium, built in 1951, has been expanded twice and can now hold more than 30,000 spectators. It is one of the central grounds for many important sports events in Shanghai. The opening ceremony of the First East Asian Games in 1993 was held here. The District SpareTime Sports School for Teenagers, established in 1958, and having sent 1,259 athletes to national, city and armed forces (above the army level) sports teams between 1960 and 1993, is in the top rank of schools of the same type in the city. Among those outstanding athletes are Cao Yanhua, women’s singles champion of the 37th and 38th World Table Tennis Championships, Shi Meiqin, ping champion of the Second World Cup and Ye Chong, men’s foil champion in the 1989 World Youth Fencing Championships. Mass sports activities have been carried out on a wide scale in the district and between 1988 and 1992, Hongkou District was successively appraised as Home of Swimming and Home of Martial Arts at the national level.

    Hongkou District is a comprehensive residential area.

    From the 1860s to the 1930s, there sprung up large numbers of now oldstyle residential houses built within lanes, with a small number of westernstyle buildings dotted among them. In the 1930s, many new style terraces and lanes, apartment buildings and villas with gardens were built in the Settlement area and along North Sichuan Road, Scott Road (now Shanyin Road) and Dixwell Road (now Liyang Road) and these fine residences in the district, being quiet and secluded in a busy district and lower in rents than those in the city center, attracted large numbers of dwellers of the uppermiddle strata, including foreign nationals, industrialists and businessmen, intellectuals, and military and civil officers. These residential buildings were severely damaged during the Japanese invasion, however. After the fall of Shanghai, many such buildings were occupied by Japanese troops or civilians and converted into Japanesestyle houses. At the same time, the Japanese also built many dwellings of their native styles. After the victory over Japan, the population in the district increased rapidly and there was a severe housing shortage, resulting in the appearance of large numbers of shanties. At the time of Shanghai’s liberation in 1949, there were a total of 1.08 million square meters of newstyle terraces and lane houses, apartment buildings and garden villas in the district, accounting for 23% of all the residential housing; 3.12 million square meters of oldstyle houses dominated by houses with stone facade doors and Cantonesestyle lane houses, accounting for 66%; and 500,000 square meters of shanties, accounting for 11%.

    After liberation, the government gave  priority to the improvement of the housing conditions of the laboring people by renovating dangerous houses, slums and shanties and by building new residential areas. Between 1953 and 1983, 15 new residential quarters were constructed in the district, including Guangzhong, Dalian, Yutian, Jianshe and Youdian, with a total building area of 695,000 square meters. In the 1980s, a variety of channels were explored for housing development in the district, including planned construction by the state, construction financed by relevant units, construction through collective funding, utilization of differential land rents, development of commodity housing and the renovation of the old living quarters in conjunction with municipal road projects and key project construction. Jiugen Lane on Haining Road, Xingfucun on Dalian Road(W)/Siping Road and Tangshan Alley on Tangshan Road were successively pulled down and rebuilt so that the integrated development in the area along Siping Road began to take shape. By the end of 1993, after the pulling down of the old residential areas, 2.33 million square meters of new housing were built in the district. The low, dark, damp and crowded shanty towns of the old days had given way to new residential areas with rows upon rows of multistoreyed and highrise apartment houses, so that the district has taken on a new look. Between 1984 and 1993, four new residential quarters were developed in the district, namely Quyan, Yunguang, Fengzhen and Liangcheng, with a building area of 2,203,900  square meters and 715,000 square meters in other housing projects, a total 2,918,900 square meters in building area have been completed in the district, 4.2 times the total building area of residential housing built in the previous 30 years. Since liberation, a total of 3,613,900 square meters of residential housing have been built in the new residential areas in the district, with per capita residential space increased from 5.3 square meters in 1986 to 6.5 square meters in 1993.

    Around the 1930s, highrises began to be built in residential housing development in Shanghai. At the time, there were four buildings with more than eight storeys in the district, covering a total area of 74,700 square meters. Among those, the Embankment Building, with a total building area of 54,200 square meters, was the largest residential building in the city. Between 1980 and 1993, 118 buildings with more than eight storeys were built in the district, 28.5 times the number before liberation. In 1993, there were a total of 157 highrises in the district, covering a total area of 1,878,000 square meters, ranking second among all the districts of the city.

    In step with housing development, the number of roads in the district had been increased to 240 by 1993, with a total length of 163.25 km. There were 68 bridges with a total length of 2,185 meters, 169 km. of drainage pipes, 19 pump stations for rainfalls and 11 transformer substations with a total load of 890,500 KVA. Almost every part of the district had tap water and electricity supply. 69.38% of the households in the district were already using town gas. There were  6 parks and 2,143,000 square meters of green land in the district with an greenpatch rate of 14.04%. By 1985, the district had become an essentially smokefree zone. In 1991, the district became a zone where low noises from fixed sources were controlled, thus greatly improving the appearance and environment quality of the district.

    Hongkou used to be a residential area for Japanese and Jewish people. After the southern part of the district was incorporated into the International Settlement in the 1860s, foreign nationals, notably British, Americans, Portuguese, Russians and Indians, moved in. After the SinoJapanese War of 18941895, Japan got privileges in China under the Treaty of Shimonoseki. As a result, more and more Japanese arrived in Shanghai. Between the 1880s and 1890s, the Japanese Consulate and Dongbenyuan Temple were established and moved into the district. The Japanese nationals settled around the two places, most of whom relatively concentrated along Broadway Road, Wuchang Road, Kunshan Road and Minhang Road. By the end of the 19th century, there were already nearly a thousand Japanese nationals in the district. During the First World War, European powers were too preoccupied to pay much attention to affairs in the East. Consequently, Japanese capital rushed in and an influx of Japanese nationals followed. The areaalong North Sichuan Road, Darroh Road, Scott Road and Dixwell Road that ran across the borders of the districts became another Japanese settlement. In mid1920s, there were already nearly ten thousand Japanese residents in Hongkou. In the 1930s, the number rose to more than twenty thousand. When the Pacific War broke out in December, 1941, Japanese troops occupied the whole International Settlement and part of the Japanese nationals in Hongkou were sent to the south of Suzhou Creek to take over “assets of hostile countries (Britain, the U.S. and Holland)”.

    During the time when Shanghai was under Japanese occupation, there were nearly one  hundred thousand Japanese nationals in the city in the peak period, of whom more than thirty thousand lived in the former International Settlement. Hongkou remained to be the area with the highest concentration of Japanese nationals in Shanghai. At that time, there evolved a large “Japanized” neighborhood, with Wusong Road and North Sichuan Road as the warp and the branch roads of the two main roads as the weft. On sale on the Sanjiaodi Food Market were fresh fish and vegetables from Nagasaki, and Japanesestyle fish shops, pickles shops, snack bars and cloth shops were everywhere to be seen,and the busiest part of Hongkou was referred to by the Japanese as “Little Tokyo”. After the Japanese surrender, the KMT government issued order that all Japanese nationals in Shanghai move within half a month to Hongkou, where a selfgoverned Japanese zone was established. At that time, there were 10,429 Japanese households and 79,755 Japanese nationals in the district. Starting from the 35th year of the Republic (1946), Japanese nationals were repatriated home in batches. The repatriation completed between June and July the same year. During the rule of the Japanese aggressors, some Japanese, however, remained friendly towards the Chinese and some of them even helped Chinese revolutionaries and progressives in carrying out their work and sheltered them. After liberation, especially after the implementation of the open and reform policy, many Japanese have come and visited the district.

    In the 1930s. Nazi Germany carried out an antiJewish policy of expelling and eliminating the Jewish people. As a result, large numbers of European Jews were forced to leave their homes and seek refuge elsewhere. Shanghai at that time was the only city in the world where no entrance visa and property guarantee were needed and so central European Jews flocked to Shanghai to seek refuge. The refugee influx reached its height between 1938 and 1939, and, in a few years, an accumulated total of about 18,000 entered the city. Most of the Jews settled down around Tilanqiao, Hongkou, where refugee centers and camps, such as 138 Ward Road (now Lane 138, Changyang Road), Alcock Road (now Anguo Road), Chaofung Road (now Gaoyang Road) and Wayside Road (now Huoshan Road), were established. In December 1940, there were 20,000 registered Jewish refugees in the city, of whom 14,00015,000 lived in Hongkou. In 1943, the Japanese authorities established a quarantine zone in the district and forced Jewish refugees to move in within a time limit and introduced a rigid registration system. In the same year, the number of Jews living in Hongkou grew to 17,000. While a small number of them lived in the refugee centers, most of them lived with Chinese residents. They got along well with the locals and shared weal and woe with them. Chinese inhabitants vacated their rooms for the Jewish refugees and found jobs for them. By opening shops, operating businesses, building homes and engaging in technical services, the Jewish refugees also made their contributions to the development of Hongkou and, as a result, more than ten neighborhoods in Tilanqiao area enjoyed a short spell of prosperity. After the end of the Second World War, the Jewish refugees left Shanghai successively for other parts of the world. However, they would never forget their experience in Shanghai and often call themselves “Shanghai Jews”, regarding Shanghai as their “second home”. Since the implementation of the reform and open policy, numerous nostalgic foreign friends of Jewish descent have visited Hongkou.

    Looking back on the evolutionary process of the district in the past century and more, we can find that the people of Hongkou had gone through ups and downs, as well as great sufferings. After the liberation of Shanghai in May 1949, under the leadership of the CPC, Hongkou people gained great achievements in economic reconstruction and other undertakings. In particular, after the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC, the focus of work was shifted to the central task of economic construction. Since 1992, as a result of the implementation of the spirit of Deng Xiaoping’s talks during his inspection tour in south China and the 14th National Congress of the CPC, new breakthroughs have been made in every aspect of the reform program, with the process of opening up externally and internally accelerated and the economic capacity of the district further enhanced. In 1997, value added at the district level totaled 2.93 billion RMB yuan, with financial income for the district at 1.032 billion RMB yuan, sales by districtrun industry at 2.11 billion RMB yuan, construction output at 728 million yuan, sales of commercial and catering sectors at 16.01 billion RMB  yuan and export transactions at 1.12 billion RMB yuan. Meanwhile, the district has taken on a new look, with social undertakings going ahead at full speed, thus creating favorable conditions for future development.

    As a new century is drawing near, and in face of a new situation with opportunities and challenges both existing, the Hongkou District Communist Party Committee and People’s Government, following the development requirements of Shanghai Municipality for Hongkou District and taking into account the specific conditions of the district, including its own favorable geographical location, and the present status of economic construction, urban and social development in the district, are determined to build Hongkou into a major trade and commercial service district with advanced education and cultural facilities, civilized and comfortable residential areas and riverside tourist attractions so as to be a modern urban area with sustainable economic, social and environment development. Full of vigor and confidence, the people in Hongkou are forging ahead towards their new goal.

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